**A Guide to R. A. Fisher**

Ronald Fisher in 1956

The
outstanding resource is the University of Adelaide Library’s R. A. Fisher
Digital Archive. This had already made available a great deal of Fisher
material but in October 2004 it put much more on-line.

Many
articles about Fisher are available through the institutional subscription
service *JSTOR*.* *Links are provided
to them as well. Information about *JSTOR*
can be had from http://www.jstor.org/.

Ronald Aylmer Fisher was born in
London on 17^{th} February 1890. His father was a successful fine arts
auctioneer and for most of Ron’s childhood the family lived very comfortably in
Hampstead.
Ron showed ability at an early age. He was particularly precocious in
mathematics, though his biology teacher divided for “sheer brilliance” all
those he had ever taught into Fisher and the rest. Fisher went up to Caius College Cambridge graduating in 1912 with a first in
mathematics. Fisher’s tutor was an astronomer and his first paper On
an Absolute Criterion for Fitting Frequency Curves published while
he was still a student came out of his study of the theory of errors. However
Fisher’s hopes were fixed on the biometricians and he most badly wanted the
absolute criterion (the future maximum likelihood) to be noticed by them. In __Mendelism
and Biometry__, an address to an undergraduate society, Fisher
envisaged a synthesis of these contesting research programmes in heredity.
Fisher’s interest in heredity was combined with a commitment to eugenics; he
was one of the founders of the University of Cambridge Eugenics Society—see Veronica
di Mambro. This led to a friendship with Leonard Darwin, son
of Charles and president of the Eugenics Education Society which published the *Eugenics Review* for which Fisher would write many pieces. Darwin’s support,
financial, intellectual and emotional, was important to Fisher especially in
the early part of his career.

After
graduating Fisher had several jobs—in an actuarial office and on a farm in Canada amongst others. Poor eyesight barred him from service in the
First World War. He was a schoolmaster when he published his Frequency Distribution of the Values of the
Correlation Coefficient in
Samples from an Indefinitely Large Population* *(1915)
and on The
Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian
Inheritance (1918). The first established a new era in the exact theory of
sampling distributions. The second vindicated *Mendelism and Biometry* for it showed how Karl Pearson’s
biometric results could be explained by Mendelian
theory.

In 1919 John
Russell of __Rothamsted
Experimental Station__ hired Fisher on a temporary basis to see if a
statistician could do anything with the mass of data accumulated there. Studies in Crop
Variation. I (1921) was the first of a stream of
papers showing what could be done. There had been some statistical work
on agricultural experiments before the war
involving ‘Student’ (W. S.
Gosset) and Fisher’s Cambridge tutor, the astronomer F.J.M. Stratton, but
Fisher raised the subject to a new level. Fisher left Rothamsted in 1933 as
head of a statistics department drawing pilgrims from all over the world. There
he developed the analysis of variance as well as a new approach to experimental
design. His principles of randomisation, replication and blocking were
presented in *Statistical Methods for Research Workers* (1925), The
Arrangement of Field Experiments (1926) and more fully in* The Design of
Experiments* (1935).

Fisher continued to work on
statistical and genetical theory. On
the Mathematical Foundations
of Theoretical Statistics (1922) and Theory
of Statistical Estimation (1925) advanced a new theory of estimation
in opposition to the Bayesian approach. It emphasised maximum likelihood as an
efficient way of extracting information from the data. Meanwhile Fisher was
reconstructing the theory of Pearson’s chi-squared test (On the Interpretation
of χ2 from Contingency Tables) and extending the scope of Student’s
distribution—see Applications
of "Student’s" Distribution. These developments, like the
analysis of variance, relied on a new system of distribution theory, based on
the interrelation of the normal *t*,
χ* ^{ 2}* and

Fisher’s genetical research at Rothamsted concentrated on evolution,
on integrating Mendelian theory with Darwin’s theory
of natural selection. His first major theoretical paper was On
the Dominance Ratio (1922). He collaborated with E. B. Ford on the
analysis of selection in wild populations. His ideas on evolution were brought
together in* Genetical Theory
of Natural Selection* (1930).
He argued that Mendelism with its view of particulate inheritance did *not* contradict Darwinism but was
consistent with it. With Sewall
Wright and J. B. S.
Haldane, Fisher is generally recognised as one of
the architects of *The Modern Synthesis*—on
the theoretical side at least.

In 1933 Fisher succeeded Pearson as Galton Professor of Eugenics and head of the Galton Laboratory at University College, London. Fisher had much greater admiration for Francis Galton than for his disciple. Though Fisher was Pearson’s natural successor in both statistics and eugenics, he did not inherit the whole empire for a Department of Applied Statistics was split off headed by Pearson’s son, E. S. Pearson. This structure did not make for harmony and relations between Fisher and members of Pearson’s department, especially its leading theorist, Jerzy Neyman, gradually deteriorated.

In London Fisher continued to work on fiducial inference, an approach he had introduced in Inverse Probability (1930). In The Fiducial Argument (1935) he applied it to the Behrens-Fisher problem. His Two New Properties of Mathematical Likelihood (1934) showed how ancillary statistics could be used in conditional inference. On the biological side he set up a unit to study the genetics of blood groups; see Box (ch. 13). The unit, which included G. L. Taylor and R. R. Race, did important work on Rhesus blood groups. Fisher also had a breeding colony of mice.

In 1943 Fisher
returned to Cambridge as professor and head of the Department
of Genetics.
His *Theory of Inbreeding*
provided a theoretical analysis of the mouse experiments he had been conducting
since his London days. Fisher was profoundly unsympathetic to the mathematical
statistics that Neyman and Wald were developing in the United States. His* Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference *(1956)
criticised those developments and gave a theoretical defence of his own
practice. In 1958 Fisher challenged Austin Bradford Hill’s
inference from the association between smoking and lung cancer that the former was
an important cause of the latter; see* Smoking.
The Cancer Controversy*.
He retired officially from Cambridge in 1957 but stayed until 1959. He
spent the last three years of his life in Adelaide as a Research Fellow at the
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). His
contacts in Adelaide were J. H. Bennett and E. J. Cornish. Fisher died in
Adelaide on July 29^{th} 1962 and his ashes lie there in St. Peter’s
Cathedral.

Fisher
received plenty of recognition. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1929 (certificate
of election), awarded its Royal Medal in 1938, Darwin Medal in 1948 and
Copley Medal in 1955; he was knighted in 1952. Fisher inspired and gave warmth
and loyalty but intellectual differences often generated personal enmities. The
most enduring of these was with Karl Pearson; this had the result that after
1915 the leading statistician never published in the leading statistics
journal, Pearson’s *Biometrika*. Later
there were quarrels with Neyman and Wright.

*Main sources*: Box , *Savage* (a
brilliant review of Fisher’s statistical work) and

Yates, F. & K. Mather (1963) Ronald
Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962,
*Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the
Royal Society*, **9**, 91-120.

*Pictures*

St Andrews Portraits
of Statisticians Portrait
at Gonville & Caius. Memorial
window.
Fisher’s childhood home. Lloyd Allison’s pictures of Fisher and of St. Peter’s Cathedral.
Royal Society portraits here
and here.

The 50^{th}
anniversary of Fisher’s death in 2012 has been commemorated by a
conference at the Royal Statistical Society. See here
for the programme.

_______________________________________________________

A full bibliography of Fisher’s writings is available from Adelaide.
This is an extended version of the bibliography in volume 1 of the *Collected Papers.*

Fisher’s
published six books and all went into more than one edition. Five appeared in
posthumous editions incorporating alterations he had planned. Only the *Genetical** Theory* exists in a variorum edition.

·
*Statistical Methods
for Research Workers*,
14 editions, 1925 /28 /30 /32 /34 /36 /38 /41 /44 / 46 /50 /54 /58 / 70,
Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. From the 1948 reprint of the 10^{th}
edition the book was also published in New York: by Hafner.
There were translations into French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese at
least.

This
was Fisher’s most influential statistics book. It is essentially a book of
significance test recipes. Behind the recipes was the system of sampling
distributions based on the normal distribution. Fisher’s ideas on randomisation
in experiments were first presented here, as well as his reconstruction of
regression theory. New editions with extra recipes appeared every few years—the first edition had 239 pages,
the last 362 more densely filled pages. While new sections were interpolated
the basic structure remained unchanged and old material that had been
important, such as the intra-class correlation, was never retired. Some old
material was rewritten in the light of new developments, e.g. the text had to
accommodate the introduction of the fiducial argument in 1930. To see how the
paragraphs on probability and likelihood in the first chapter were rewritten
see Likelihood & Probability and follow the trail of red ink.
In 1951 an issue of *JASA* celebrated
the book’s silver jubilee. The first edition
is available on Christopher Green’s * Classics in the History of Psychology* website. Six reviews of the 1

·
*The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection*, 3 editions 1930 /58 /99. Oxford
University Press (1930), Dover (1958), Oxford University Press (1999).

W. D. Hamilton
rated this book as “second in importance in evolution theory to Darwin’s *Origin*”. It launched the “fundamental
theorem of natural selection” the subject of much later debate. The reviews are
reviewed in Bennett
*Natural Selection* (pp. 35ff).
Only two reviews are currently available on *JSTOR*:
both emphasise the chapters on human populations—N. M. Grier in *Social Forces* Dec (1930) *JSTOR
*and A. B. Hill in *JRSS* No. 1
(1931) *JSTOR*.
Fisher prepared a second edition (1958) but the revisions were not carefully
done. J.
H. Bennett has edited a __complete variorum edition__
(1999) with numerous additional documents.*
*For
more information see B.
D. Neville’s review

·
*The Design of
Experiments*, 8
editions, 1935 /37 /42 /47 /49 /51 /60 /66, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. From
5^{th} edition also published New York: Hafner

This work expounded the
principles of experimental design Fisher had been developing since the mid 20s. It was essentially an ideas book and much of the
associated statistical analysis was presented in *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*. Over the years Fisher
added some sub-sections and changed some of the text but the final edition of
the book is not very different from the first. The first edition was reviewed
by S. V. Eaton *Botanical Gazette*, **97**, (Dec., 1935), 426-427 *JSTOR*, Harold Hotelling *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **30**, (Dec., 1935), 771-772 *JSTOR*
and C. C. Craig *American Mathematical
Monthly*, **43**, (Mar., 1936),
180-181 *JSTOR*.

·
*Statistical Tables
for Biological Agricultural and Medical Research* (with F. Yates), 6 editions,
1938 /43 /49 /53 /57 /63, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. From 3^{rd}
edition also published New York: Hafner.

The basic tables were provided in* Statistical Methods for Research Workers*
with instruction in how to use them. Those presented here were much more
extensive—more distributions were covered and individual tables were less
abbreviated and successive editions brought in extra tables. The tables are
prefaced by an Introduction describing their use. Yates recalled the origins of
the book in his foreword to the 1990 compendium: “By the mid-1930s it became
increasingly obvious that a book of tables, containing properly bound copies of
those included in *Statistical Methods*, would be of great benefit to
practical workers. When I first suggested this Fisher was averse to it, but
eventually he changed his mind. I then discovered, somewhat to my surprise,
that he had indeed been thinking about this for some time.” The sixth (posthumous) edition is available from Adelaide here.
M. G. Kendall ends his review of the first edition with, “The book will be
indispensable to users of the newer methods in statistics.” *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*,
**102**, (1939), p. 298
*JSTOR*.

·
*Theory of
Inbreeding*, 2
editions, 1949 /65, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. 2^{nd} edition also
published New York: Academic Press.

A theoretical investigation of certain aspects of
inbreeding and a presentation of the theory of junctions. Although the topic
has both practical and theoretical interest and the opening chapter makes an
interesting link with Darwin, this book has none of the general interest of the
*Genetical** Theory of Natural Selection*. There is a
review by M. S. Bartlett *JRSSA*, **113**, No. 2. (1950), 249-250 *JSTOR*

·
*Statistical Methods
and Scientific Inference*,
3 editions, 1956/59/74, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. Also published New York Hafner.

This was Fisher’s only unified account of the principles
underlying his approach to statistical inference—significance tests, likelihood
and fiducial inference. It takes the form of a review of statistical inference
since Bayes. As he had been doing since the 20s, Fisher criticised the Bayesian
approach but he also criticised Neyman and Wald. Some of the points against
them are made in his 1955 *JRSSB*
article “Statistical
Methods and Scientific Induction” *JSTOR*.
Some new material was added in later editions. The first edition was reviewed
by N. T.
J. Bailey *JRSSA*, **120**, No. 1. (1957), 88-89 *JSTOR
*, G. H. Jowett *Applied Statistics*, **6**, No. 3, (1957), 226-227 * JSTOR*,
M. S. Bartlett

*Smoking. The Cancer Controversy: Some Attempts to Assess the Evidence.*Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, (1959).

Not a book but a pamphlet of 47
pages, reprinting the pieces Fisher had written on the topic. Apart from the
additional note ‘Inhaling’ these are reproduced in the *Collected Papers*. The volume was reviewed by C. C. Spicer *JRSSA*, **122**,
No. 4. (1959), 554-556, __JSTOR.__

·
*Statistical Methods*, *Experimental Design and Scientific Inference*,
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

A
compilation edited by J. H. Bennett containing the posthumous editions of* Statistical Methods for Research Workers,*
*Design of Experiments* and *Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference
*as published by Hafner with a foreword by F. Yates.

The standard edition of Fisher’s papers is

J. H. Bennett
(1971/4) *Collected Papers of R. A. Fisher*
5 volumes, Adelaide: Adelaide University Press.

This has 294 items but even so it lacks most of Fisher’s book reviews and some of his published contributions to discussions. Sets can be purchased from the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo.

Fisher made a selection of his statistical
papers—and wrote notes on them—for the volume

These notes are included in the Bennett edition and in the
digitalised version from Adelaide. The Shewhart
volume was reviewed by E. S. Pearson Biometrika, **38**, No. 1/2 (Jun., 1951), 257-259, *JSTOR.*

**Web
access**

·
Many of the articles are
available from Adelaide
and there are links to several of these in this guide. All of the articles,
except for Fisher’s review of Keynes’s *Treatise on Probability*, (CP32A
in the list)
had previously appeared in the *Collected Papers*.

- Many are also available on
*JSTOR*. Unlike the Adelaide texts the*JSTOR*texts are searchable.

- Fisher wrote many short articles and very many
reviews for the
*Eugenics Review*. All issues of the journal are now available online.

Although
many of Fisher’s articles are available on the web, that does not make them
easy to read—technical literature written between forty and ninety years ago
seldom is. (Of the papers mentioned in the biographical
sketch the most approachable is
probably The
Arrangement of Field Experiments.)

i) Fisher wrote many
non-technical pieces. For the *Eugenics
Review* he wrote expositions of his genetic papers as well as pieces on
eugenics proper. In later years he wrote many perspective pieces. Here are some
examples.

·
Some Hopes of
a Eugenist. *Eugenics Review*, **5**: 309-315 (1914)

·
The
Causes of Human Variability. *Eugenics
Review*, **10**: 213-220. (1918)

·
Darwinian Evolution by Mutations. *Eugenics
Review*, **14**: 31-34 (1922)

·
The
Biometrical Study of Heredity. *Eugenics
Review*, **16**: 189-210. (1924)

·
The Bearing
of Genetics on Theories of
Evolution**.** *Science
Progress, ***27**: 273-287 (1932)

·
The
Contributions of Rothamsted to the Development of the Science of Statistics. Annual
Report Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1933, p. 43-50.

·
Uncertain
Inference. *Proceedings of the
American Academy of Arts and Science*, **71**:
245-258 (1936)* *

·
Has Mendel’s
Work been Rediscovered?* Annals of Science, ***1, **115-137, (1936)

·
The Rhesus Factor : A Study in Scientific Method. *American Scientist, ***35**: 95-103 (1947)

·
Statistics. In *Scientific Thought in the Twentieth Century,
*(ed. A.E. Heath), pp. 31-55. London : Watts, 1951.

·
Natural Selection
from the Genetical Standpoint. *Australian Journal of Science*, **22**: 16-17 (1959)

In these expositions Fisher did not just re-hash old
material, thus *Uncertain Inference*
contains the first statement of the problem of the Nile.

ii) His technical writings seem unnecessarily difficult because important steps in the argument are often left out. His main books are almost desperately non-technical but this only perplexes the reader who tries to reconstruct the underlying mathematical argument. Thus some of his publications have been reprinted with aids for the reader.

The
fundamental 1918 population genetics paper is reprinted with a detailed
analysis in

P. A. P. Moran
and C. A. B. Smith (1966) Commentary on R. A. Fisher’s Paper 'The Correlation
between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian
Inheritance’*. Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs
XLI*, Galton Laboratory, University College London. Reviewed by K. Mather *Population Studies*, **20**, (1967), 372-3 *JSTOR
*and* *C. C. Li *Quarterly Review of Biology*, **42**, (1967), 425-426
*JSTOR*.

Two anthologies of statistical classics reproduce some of Fisher’s writing. These have introductions and bibliographies.

·
S. Kotz &
N. L. Johnson (1992) *Breakthroughs in
Statistics Volumes 1 & 2*, New York, Springer.

In
volume 1, S. M. Geisser discusses (part of)
“Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics” (1922), the great
programmatic work on statistical theory. In volume 2, T. Speed discusses “The
Arrangement of Field Experiments” (1926) and S. C. Pearce discusses an extract
from *Statistical Methods for Research
Workers* (1925) dealing with the analysis of variance.

·
H. A. David
& A. W. F. Edwards (2001) *Annotated
Readings in the History of Statistics*, New York: Springer.

Edwards
discusses “Inverse Probability”, the first presentation of the fiducial
argument.

Fisher’s
correspondence & manuscripts

·
Fisher’s papers are in the Barr-Smith
Library of the University of Adelaide. (See also Nancy Hall.)
Fisher carried on an extensive correspondence from
the late 1920s and letters make up the bulk of the collection, although there
are some unpublished manuscripts and notes. From the list
of correspondents it seems Fisher corresponded with virtually everybody.
Note that much of the material is now available online. The letters in Adelaide
formed the basis of the two volumes of published correspondence edited by J. H.
Bennett. See below.

·
Adelaide has also issued a file of miscellaneous
notes and a list of the contents
of Fisher’s library.

·
University College London (UCL) has correspondence with Gosset and Karl Pearson.

·
The National Register
of Archives lists some further holdings in the UK

·
There are letters in the Hotelling papers at Columbia
University

·
The American
Philosophical Society Library has extensive holdings of the papers of
American scientists. For Fisher the most significant collection is the Sewall Wright Papers
but there is Fisher material in other collections: Milislav
Demerec Papers L. C. Dunn Papers Raymond Pearl Papers
Bronson
Price Papers. The entries have useful biographical information on their
subjects. The APS also have the papers of John Tukey but these are not
yet catalogued.

Presumably
more material will become available as the papers of those who corresponded
with Fisher pass into library collections.

Published correspondence

Much
valuable material has been published with useful notes by various editors.

·
E. S. Pearson (1968) Some Early
Correspondence between W. S. Gosset, R. A. Fisher and Karl Pearson, with Notes
and Comments, *Biometrika*, **55**, 445-457. *JSTOR*

These
letters (originals
in UCL) are to or from or about Fisher in his earliest days as a statistician.

·
*Letters from W. S.
Gosset to R. A. Fisher 1915-1936*:
Summaries by R. A. Fisher with a Foreword by L. McMullen, printed by Arthur
Guinness for private circulation and placed in a few libraries.

For
Fisher’s statistical work up to the mid-30s the correspondence with Gosset
(Student) is the most useful source (The originals
are in UCL). There is no editorial apparatus. The second edition of 1970 has a
few letters not in the first of 1962. The letters are best read in conjunction
with the biographies by Box
and E. S. Pearson.

- J.
H. Bennett (1983) (ed.)
*Natural Selection, Heredity, and Eugenics. Including Selected Correspondence of R. A. Fisher with Leonard Darwin and Others*. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

This selection is valuable for
Fisher’s genetics in the period 1915-1938: Bennett’s introduction is an
excellent guide to this side of Fisher’s work.
The correspondence with Darwin reveals more of Fisher’s feelings
than the cordial but more professional correspondence with Gosset. This volume,
based on Adelaide material, is also useful for Fisher’s relations with Sewall
Wright and J. B. S. Haldane. Fisher’s undergraduate paper on *Mendelism and Biometry* is included.
There are reviews by D. J. Finney *Biometrics*,
**40**, (Dec., 1984), p. 1209 *JSTOR,
*Garland E. Allen* Isis, ***77**, (Mar., 1986), pp. 168-169 *JSTOR
*and* *A. W. F. Edwards* Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*,* A*,**
150***, *(1987), pp. 168-169 *JSTOR.*

·
J.
H. Bennett (1990) (ed) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected
Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*, Oxford, University Press.

This is based on material in
Adelaide and relates to Fisher’s statistical work after 1930. The volume is a *selection*:
many of Fisher’s correspondents are not here and not all of the letters of the
correspondents who are here are included. The volume includes correspondence
with the statisticians mentioned below as well
as with Darmois, Fraser, Fréchet, Savage and Tukey. There are interesting comments on the book
and on Fisher in

G.
A. Barnard (1992) Review of *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected Correspondence* of R.
A. *Fisher *(edited by J. H. Bennett). *Statistical Science*, **7**, 5-12. *JSTOR*

A. P. Dempster
(1991) Fisher’s Letters: *Statistical
Inference and Analysis. Selected Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by R. A.
Fisher; J. H. Bennett, *Science New Series*,
**252**, No. 5002, 143-144. *JSTOR*

A. W. F. Edwards (1991) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected
Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by J. H. Bennett, *Biometrics*, **47**,
199-1200. *JSTOR*

A. W. Kemp (1993) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected
Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by R. A. Fisher; J. H. Bennett, *The Statistician* , **42**, 75-76. *JSTOR*

_______________________________________________________

*Writing about
Fisher* is *not*
a well-defined category. Fisher was such an important figure that to write
about his subjects was inevitably to write about his ideas. Modern work on *the* analysis of variance usually makes
no direct reference to him but in the 1930s it was *Fisher’s* analysis of variance. Writing on other Fisher
topics—particularly controversial ones like fiducial inference, the
Behrens-Fisher problem or the fundamental theorem of natural selection—can be
as much about Fisher as anything with his name in the title.

The
hundreds of references below *illustrate*
different ways of approaching Fisher. The grouping of items is rough and
unsystematic; there is no category of *articles
taking off from Fisher *as that would have produced thousands of references.
The electronic format makes it easy for you to make your own specialised list:
to make one on, say, the fiducial argument start by searching on fiducial.

There
is the fine full-scale **biography** by
Fisher’s daughter.

·
Joan Fisher Box (1978) *R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist*, New York: Wiley. Preface

This covers both Fisher’s
scientific career and his personal life. Many of those who worked with Fisher
were still alive and the book makes excellent use of their recollections. The
book conveys very well how Fisher saw his controversies but it is worth
consulting treatments from the other side: see Fisher’s significant others.
Kruskal’s review essay provides additional
perspective

W. Kruskal (1980) The Significance of Fisher: A
Review of *R. A. Fisher: The Life of a
Scientist* by Joan Fisher Box, *Journal
of the American Statistical Association*, **75**, 1019-1030. *JSTOR*

There are less detailed reviews by Rao *Mathematical
Reviews*, Yates *Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society, A*, **142**, (1979), 504-506 *JSTOR*, Finney *Biometrics*, **35**,
(1979), 357-358 *JSTOR*, Dempster *Science*, **203**, No. 4380. (Feb. 9, 1979), p. 537, *JSTOR*, Kanji *Statistician*,
**30**, (1981), 157-158 *JSTOR*, Calder *Statistician*,
**36**, (1987), 60-62 *JSTOR*. Porter *Journal of Heredity*,
**28**, (1987), 215 here.
The article “Science and Statistics” by G.E.P. Box (Joan’s husband) is an
interesting companion piece to the biography.

There
is a useful **overview** of Fisher’s **statistical** work

·
S. E. Fienberg & D. V. Hinkley
(1980) (eds) *R. A. Fisher: An
Appreciation*, New York, Springer.

This
contains essays on the individual fields to which Fisher contributed. The
individual essays appear below and can be found by searching for Fienberg.
There is a detailed review by Oscar Kempthorne *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, 78, (1983), 482-490 *JSTOR.* This is not only an account of
the book but a record of Kempthorne’s feelings about
Fisher. There is a note by Seneta in *Mathematical
Reviews*.

Recently
three **mini-symposia** on Fisher have appeared. The *Statistician*
articles were associated with the blue
plaque occasion of 2002 and survey Fisher’s main activities. The *IJE*
articles focus on smoking; see below for other articles on this theme.
The “Mendel-Fisher controversy” began with Fisher’s 1936 paper Has Mendel’s work been rediscovered?; see below for other
articles on this theme.

·
S. Senn, P. J. Green, M. J. R. Healy, A. W. F.
Edwards, A. Grafen (2003) A Blue Plaque for
Fisher, *Statistician* (*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,
Series D*), **52** (3), 297-330.

·
P. Armitage, W. Bodmer, I. Chalmers, R. Doll, H. Marks*
*(2003)* International Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**, (6),
922-948.

·
A. Franklin, A. W. F. Edwards, D. J. Fairbanks, D.
L. Hartl, T. Seidenfeld
(2008) *Ending the Mendel-Fisher
Controversy*, University of Pittsburgh Press.

.

Obituaries, memorials and
reminiscences

Ronald
Fisher has been remembered in publications ranging from *The Caian, *his college magazine, to the *Dictionary of National Biography*. The
list here is arranged chronologically. 1962-7 was the time for obituaries and
appreciations and 1990 was the Fisher centenary. There were no obituaries in
the main genetics journals as they do not seem to have published obituaries at
the time of Fisher’s death. Except for
Yates & Mather the links are to *JSTOR*.

*The
Times*, London,
Tuesday 31 July 1962. Anonymous, but said to be by V.B. Wigglesworth. Followed
some days later by supplementary material by G.A. Barnard, Sir John Russell and
C. I. Bliss. Available from St Andrews.

Sir Ronald
Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962 (in Obituary) *Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society. A*, (1962), **125**, 668. *JSTOR*

A. R. G. Owen
(1962) An Appreciation of the Life and Work of Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher F.R.S.,
F.S.S. Sc.D., *Statistician*, **12**, 313-319. *JSTOR
*

W. J. Youden (1962) Memorial to Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher:
1890-1962, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association*, **57,**
727-728. *JSTOR*

C. D. Darlington and J. A. Fraser
Roberts (1962) Sir Ronald Fisher, F.R.S., F.S.S. *Eugenics Review, 54
, (3), 120-122*.

F.
Yates (1962) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) *Revue de l’Institut
International de Statisitique*, **30**, (2),
280-282.

M. Fréchet (1963) Letter to the President of
the Royal Statistical Society, *Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society. Series A*,
**126**, 169-170. (part of the following
entry)

J. O.
Irwin, G. A. Barnard, K. Mather, F.
Yates, & M. J. R. Healy (1963) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962, *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Series A*, **126**, 159-178. *JSTOR*

M. G. Kendall (1963) Ronald Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962, *Biometrika*, **50**, 1-15. *JSTOR*,

F. Yates & K. Mather (1963) Ronald Aylmer
Fisher 1890-1962, *Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **9**, 91-120.

J. Neyman. (1967) R. A. Fisher (1890-1962): An Appreciation,
*Science*, **156**, 1456-1460. *JSTOR*

W. G. Cochran
(1967) Footnote [To Neyman 1967], *Science*,
**156**, 1460-1462. *JSTOR*

F. Yates (1981) Fisher, Sir
Ronald Aylmer, *The Dictionary of National
Biography, 1961-70*, ed. E. T. Williams and C. S. Nicholls, pp. 361-362,
Oxford University Press.

L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1990)
Recollections of Whittingehame Lodge. *Theoretical Population Biology*, **38**, 301-305.

C.
Clarke (1990) Professor Sir Ronald Fisher, F.R.S. *British Medical Journal*, **301**,
1446-1448.

A. W. F.
Edwards (1990) Commemorative windows in Hall for John Venn and R. A.
Fisher. *The Caian,
November 1990*, Cambridge: Gonville and Caius
College, 67-68.

A. W. F. Edwards (1990) R. A. Fisher, 1890-1962. XV International Biometric Conference, Budapest, 2-6 July 1990; Proceedings of Invited Papers, 3-6.

C. B. Goodhart (1990) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sc.D.,
F.R.S. *The Caian,
November 1990*, Cambridge: Gonville and Caius
College, 68-73.

J. C.
Gower (1990/1) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962, *Mathematical* *Spectrum*, **23**, 76-86.

Of course many of those who knew
Fisher have left more informal recollections, e.g., the cosmologist Fred Hoyle
in Fisher
quotations (the last one) and the mathematician Christopher Zeeman in *The Linnean*, **22**, (2006), 10-11 recall conversations
with him. There are more recollections in Nathan Keyfitz
(2010) Fisher and Friends, *Significance*, **7**, (4), 185.

Encyclopedia articles give brief surveys of
Fisher and his work. They can also provide linked articles on people and/or
topics associated with Fisher: in Statistics Karl Pearson, W. S. Gosset, J.
Neyman, etc) and analysis of variance, fiducial
inference, design of experiments, likelihood, chi-squared, information, sufficiency,
ancillarity etc; in
genetics/evolutionary biology Pearson, W. Bateson, Sewall Wright, J. B. S.
Haldane E. B. Ford and evolution, natural selection, modern synthesis, sex
ratio, … For statistics the *Encyclopedia** of
Biostatistics* and *Statisticians of the Centuries* have the fullest links and for
biology the *Encyclopedia** of Life Sciences*; this last has many
articles on Fisher topics and Fisher people e.g. evolution, the sex-ratio, E.
B. Ford, Karl Pearson and Sewall Wright* *

M. Ruse (2006)
Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *Encyclopedia** of Life Sciences, Wiley* available to
subscribing institutions at http://www.els.net/

N. S. Hall
(2004) Fisher, Sir Ronald. *Encyclopedia** of
Social Measurement *(ed. K. Kempf-Leonard) 39-.
New York: Elsevier

A. W. F. Edwards (2002) Fisher,
R. A. *Encyclopedia** of Genetics*. New York: Academic Press.

S.
L. Zabell (2001) Ronald Aylmer Fisher. *Statisticians
of the Centuries* (ed. C. C. Heyde and E. Seneta) pp. 389-397. New York:
Springer.

A. W. F.
Edwards (2001) Darwin and Mendel united: the contributions of Fisher, Haldane
and Wright up to 1932. *Encyclopedia** of
Genetics*. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.

A. W. F. Edwards (2001) Ronald A.
Fisher. *International Encyclopedia
of the Social and Behavioural Sciences*. Kidlington,
Oxford: Pergamon.

J. F. Box & A. W. F. Edwards
(1998) Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *Encyclopedia** of
Biostatistics* **2**, 1523-1529.
Chichester: Wiley.

J. F. Box (1997) Fisher, Ronald
Aylmer, *Leading Personalities in
Statistical Sciences from the Seventeenth Century to the Present*, 99-108.
New York: Wiley.

A. W. F.
Edwards (1987) Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *The
New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics*, London : Macmillan, Volume II,
376-377.

J. F. Box (1982) Fisher, Ronald
Aylmer, *Encyclopedia** of Statistical Science, ***3, **103-111. New York: Wiley.

M. S. Bartlett (1978) Fisher, R.
A., *International Encyclopedia
of Statistics*, **1**, 352-358. New
York: Free Press.

N. T. Gridgeman
(1972) Fisher, R. A., *Dictionary of
Scientific Biography*, **5**, 7-11.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher’s
work is discussed in histories of the various fields to which he contributed.
See the following.

·
A. Hald (1998) *A History of Mathematical Statistics from
1750 to 1930.* New York: Wiley.

This is a detailed technical
history. Despite the title it extends beyond 1930 to cover most of Fisher’s
work.

·
A. Hald (2007) *A History of Parametric Statistical
Inference from Bernoulli to Fisher, 1713-1935.* New York: Springer.

This is essentially a second
edition of part of Hald’s 1998 book.

·
G. Gigerenzer, Z. Switjink, T. Porter, L. Daston
& L. Kruger (1989) *The Empire of
Chance*, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fisher is a major twentieth
century presence in this general history of probability and statistics.

·
J. W. Tankard (1984) *The Statistical Pioneers*,
Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Essentially a collection of
biographies with a chapter on Fisher.

·
H. O. Lancaster (1969) *The** Chi-squared Distribution*, New York: Wiley.

A historically informed monograph
on a subject to which Fisher made important contributions.

·
D. A. MacKenzie (1981) *Statistics in Britain 1865-1930: the Social Construction of Scientific
Knowledge*, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

A sociology of science
perspective on Statistics, Genetics and Eugenics with a chapter on Fisher’s
work.

·
W. B. Provine (1971) *The Origins of Theoretical Population
Genetics*. University of Chicago Press.

·
E. Mayr
(1982) *The Growth of Biological Thought:
Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance*, Cambridge MA., Bellknap
Press.

Mayr
did not appreciate Fisher and this book of nearly 1000 pages devotes only a
page or so to him.*
*

· Garland E. Allen (1988) Bibliographic Essays: Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century.

There are several essays on
Fisher; they appear below and can be found by searching on Sarkar.

·
J. Gayon (1998) *Darwinism’s
Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection*,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

An account of evolutionary
theory from Darwin to the Modern Synthesis. There is a review by Michael R. Rose
(2001)

Once More with
Feeling. *Journal of Evolutionary Biology* **14** (3), 519-519.

·
Stephen Jay Gould (2002) *The Structure of Evolutionary Theory*, Cambridge MA.: Belknap Press.

This is a personal interpretation of the present-day state of the subject but it contains plenty of history.

This history of the British
Eugenics movement has a chapter on Fisher.

- E. J. Russell (1966)
*A History of Agricultural Science in Great Britain 1620-1954*, London, George Allen & Unwin.

Russell brought Fisher to Rothamsted. His book emphasises the role of Rothamsted in the development of agricultural science in Britain. Russell himself is the subject of

H. G.
Thornton (1966) Sir Edward John Russell**, ***Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **12**, 457-477.

·
J. C. Gower, J. C. (1988) Statistics and
Agriculture, *Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, A*, **151**,
179-200. *JSTOR*

A survey of the British scene from the end of the 18^{th}
century.

·
Anthony C. Atkinson & R. A. Bailey (2001) One
Hundred Years of the Design of Experiments On and Off the Pages of *Biometrika*,
*Biometrika*, **88**, 53-97.

Because Fisher boycotted *Biometrika*
after 1918 (biographical sketch)
his presence in this history is strictly “off the page”.

Many
of the **technical terms** in modern
Statistics came from Fisher. See

·
David, H. A. First (?) Occurrence of Common Terms in
Statistics and Probability, Appendix B and pp. 219-228 of H. A. David & A. W.
F. Edwards (ed) (2001) *Annotated Readings in the History of Statistics*, Springer New York.

·
Or search for **Fisher** in Jeff Miller’s Earliest
known uses of some of the words of mathematics and Earliest uses of symbols in
probability and statistics pages. Many of the entries have links to the
papers where Fisher first used the terms.

·
There is an account of how Fisher transformed Karl
Pearson’s statistical language in

J. Aldrich (2003) The Language of
the English Biometric School, *International Statistical Review*, **71**,
109-131.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher in textbooks

Modern statistics textbooks refer to the “Fisher exact test”, “Fisher information”, etc. but they rarely indicate the depth and breadth of his contribution. Some contributions were so fundamental that they are invisible and not attributed to him or indeed to anybody.

M. Ezekiel’s *Methods of
Correlation Analysis* (1930) was perhaps the first textbook to give
prominence to Fisher’s ideas. Snedecor’s textbook was
very widely used while Mather’s carried an endorsement from Fisher.

·
George W. Snedecor
(1937) *Statistical Methods Applied to Experiments in Agriculture and Biology*,
Ames, Iowa:
Collegiate Press.

·
K. Mather (1943) *Statistical Analysis in Biology*,
London: Methuen.

Cramér’s synthesis puts Fisher’s contribution alongside
that of others and so provides some perspective on it

·
H.
Cramér (1946) *Mathematical
Methods of Statistics*, Princeton University Press, London.

There
are frequent references to Fisher’s ideas on inference in

D. R. Cox & D. V. Hinkley (1974) *Theoretical
Statistics*, London: Chapman & Hall.

In biology Fisher *does* figure in some modern
textbooks

- A. W. F. Edwards
(1999)
*Foundations of Mathematical Genetics*, second edition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. - J. Maynard Smith (1998)
*Evolutionary Genetics*, second edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher was involved with other scientists in a variety of
ways. Of course the categories are not mutually exclusive, though there do not
seem to have been cases of co-authors and students becoming enemies.

- Co-authors: C.S. Stock (1915) W. A. Mackenzie (1922 twice, 23) H. G. Thornton (1922, 27, 34) J. Davidson (1922) S. Oden (1924) P. R. Ansell (1925), E. B. Ford (1926, 28, 39, 40, 47, 48, 50) J. Wishart (1927, 30, 31) T. Eden (1927, 29) L. H. C. Tippett (1928) T. N. Hoblyn (1928), B. Balmukand (1928), S. Bartlett (1931) F. R Immer (1932) O. Tedin (1932), F. Yates (1934), P. H. H. Gray (1934), C. Diver (1934), S. Barbacki (1936), K. Mather (1936 twice, 1940, 42, 43) E. A. Cornish (1937, 60) H. Gray (1937) G. L. Taylor (1939, 40, 44), J. Huxley (1939) J. Vaughan (1939) W. H. Dowdeswell (1940, 48) W. R. G. Atkins (1943) J. A. Fraser Roberts (1943) S. B. Holt (1944) R. R. Race (1944, 46) L. Martin (1945, 51) V. C. Martin (1947, 48) M. F. Lyon (1947) A. R. G. Owen (1947) D. Dugué (1948) G. D. Snell (1948) W. Landauer (1953) V. C. Fyfe (1955) M. J. R. Healy (1956).

See Box for information on many of these and their work with Fisher. There are additional references below. Russell’s history is useful for Fisher’s Rothamsted collaborators. An early Rothamsted collaborator was H. G. Thornton, the chief bacteriologist

P.S Nutman. (1977) Sir Henry Gerard Thornton**, ***Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal
Society*, **23**, 557-574.

·
Enemies
In his obituary piece in *The Times*
Barnard wrote “his devotion to scientific truth being literally passionate, he
was an implacable enemy of those whom who judged guilty of propagating error.”
There were serious breaches with Karl Pearson,
Sewall Wright and Jerzy Neyman amongst others. See below.

·
Students both formal and informal. See below.

·
Friends.
From Barnard in *The Times *again, “He was capable of tremendous charm and
warmth in friendship.” One important friendship outside of the usual
colleague/student pattern was that with Mahalanobis.
Their relationship was like that between friendly potentates. P. C. Mahalonobis (1893-1972) was a physicist turned statistician
who set up the Indian Statistical Institute in 1931. He and Fisher made contact
in the 1920s and Fisher became an important ally in establishing Statistics in
India. Their friendship is discussed by Box and also by

A. Rudra
(1996) *Prasanta** Chandra Mahalanobis: A Biography,* Oxford University Press,
Delhi.

P. C. Mahalanobis (1964) Some
Personal Memories of R. A. Fisher,*
Biometrics*, **20**, 368-371. *JSTOR*

Some relationships were of such
importance in the history of 20^{th} century Statistics and Genetics
and/or in Fisher’s life that they have their own literatures. The relationship
with Leonard Darwin was an important personal relationship. The relationships
with the others reflect Fisher’s changing position, as he got older and his
authority increased. Pearson and Gosset were his significant seniors, Wright
was a contemporary while *Fisher* was
the significant senior for Neyman and Jeffreys.

Someone who belongs here is E.
S. Pearson. However, Fisher saw Egon Pearson as a proxy, first for his
father, Karl Pearson, and then for his collaborator Jerzy Neyman. Some of the
material under Neyman is useful for Fisher’s relations with ESP but the best
source is Pearson’s biography of Student. The reviews
Pearson wrote of the first two editions of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for
Research Workers* drew replies from Fisher.

Fisher
and Karl Pearson see
biographical
sketch

In 1912 Karl Pearson
(1857-1936) St
Andrews** **dominated Statistics and Biometry but by the end of the
20s Fisher had replaced him as the leader in both subjects. On Fisher’s death Fréchet wrote, “Les
statisticiens du monde entier savent quelle dette ils doivent à l’école
statistique brittanique, et en particulier, aux deux
grands savants, qui ont, l’un créé, l’autre transformé le statistique
mathématique, Karl Pearson et Sir Ronald Fisher” (1963). However, it is clear from Fisher’s Statistics
and his * Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference
*that Pearson was no “grand savant” for him.

Personal relations between the men began to be cold from 1917, when Fisher felt Pearson had treated him badly, and Fisher was still expressing bitterness twenty years after Pearson’s death. Fisher’s contempt for Pearson found expression in some unlikely ways, e.g. in his celebration of the work of Pearson’s contemporary W. F. Sheppard. The rift occurred at a critical point in Fisher's career but it was less vital for Pearson and there is more on the relationship in Box than in either of the Pearson biographies. E. S. Pearson was reticent on the relationship, because the events were too recent and the people too close, and, though Porter has some discussion, he is more interested in earlier formative events in his subject’s life.

Egon S. Pearson (1936/8) Karl
Pearson: An Appreciation of Some Aspects of his Life and Work, In Two Parts, *Biometrika*, **28**, 193-257, **29**,
161-247. *JSTOR*,
*JSTOR
*(Published as a
book by Cambridge University Press, in 1938.)

Theodore M. Porter (2004) *Karl Pearson: the Scientific Life in a
Statistical Age. *Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press

Pearson (1968)
contains important documents and a valuable commentary. Other general discussions
include:

A. W. F. Edwards (1994) R. A.
Fisher on Karl Pearson, *Notes and Records
of the Royal Society of* *London,* **48**, 97-106. *JSTOR*

S. Sarkar
(1995) J. B. S. Haldane and R. A. Fisher’s Draft Life of Karl Pearson,* Notes and Records of the* *Royal Society of London,* **49**,119-124. *JSTOR*

Fisher’s
letters to Pearson from 1933 to -35 are available on the Adelaide correspondence
site.

There were many points at issue between Fisher and Pearson. On the genetic side see Provine and

B. Norton
and Pearson, E. S. (1976) A Note on the Background to and
Refereeing of R. A. Fisher’s 1918 Paper 'The Correlation between Relatives on
the Supposition of Mendelian inheritance’. *Notes & Records of the Royal Society of
London,* **31**, 151-62. *JSTOR*

Fisher
(1918) reconciled Mendelism and Biometry. Morrison tries to identify the
assumptions behind Fisher’s reconciliation and those behind Pearson’s rejection
of reconciliation.

M. Morrison (2002) Modelling
Populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and Biometry, *British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*, **53**, 39-698.

On
the statistical
side see Hald, Lancaster
(1969), Aldrich (1997) and Stigler (2005) as
well as

S. E. Fienberg
(1980) Fisher’s Contribution to Categorical Data, pp. 75-84 in Fienberg &
Hinkley.

R. Mensch (1980) Fisher and the
Method of Moments, pp. 67-74 in Fienberg
& Hinkley.

D. Baird (1983) The
Fisher/Pearson Chi-Squared Controversy: A Turning Point for Inductive
Inference, *British Journal for the Philosophy
of Science*, **34**, 105-118. *JSTOR*

H. F. Inman (1994) Karl Pearson
and R. A. Fisher on Statistical Tests: A 1935 Exchange from Nature, *American Statistician*, **48**, 2-11. *JSTOR*

For more on Pearson see Karl
Pearson: A Reader’s Guide. 2007 is the sesquicentenary
of Pearson’s birth and the anniversary will doubtless generate discussion of
the relationship between Pearson and
Fisher.

Fisher and Leonard Darwin see biographical sketch

L. H. Darwin (1850–1943)
had a strong influence on Fisher and on the course of his career. From Box‘s
account he was like a surrogate father. Darwin was honorary president of the Eugenics
Education Society (see Mazumdar) when he and Fisher met. Although
Darwin was not a scientist, Fisher discussed scientific questions with him:
their letters are reprinted (with notes) in Bennett and copies
of the originals are available on the web.
*The Genetical
Theory of Natural Selection* is dedicated to him: “In gratitude for the
encouragement, given to the author, during the last fifteen years, by
discussing many of the problems dealt with in this book.” The versatile Major
Darwin—after retiring from the Royal Engineers he campaigned for
bimetallism—was remembered in the obituary pages of the *Economic Journal*
by J. M. Keynes and his sister-in-law Margaret Keynes, who was Darwin’s niece

Obituary (in
Notes and Memoranda) *Economic Journal*, **53**, 438-448 (1943) JSTOR

Another niece, Gwen Raverat,
has a portrait of Uncle Lenny in

Gwen Raverat (1952) *Period
Piece: A Cambridge Childhood*, London: Faber & Faber.

See also

A.
W. F. Edwards (2004) Leonard Darwin *New
Dictionary of National Biography*, Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Fisher
and ‘Student’ (W. S. Gosset)
see
biographical sketch

Of the older statisticians the most sympathetic to Fisher was W. S. Gosset (1876-1937) St. Andrews; their relationship can be followed through the Letters. Their one public disagreement was about randomisation in experiments. Fisher greatly admired ‘Student’ (see the obituary) and gave him generous credit: ‘Student’s’ work had effected a “logical revolution”. The modest Gosset thought that “Fisher would have discovered it all anyway.” Their relationship is discussed by Box, Pearson (1968), and by

E. S. Pearson (1990) *‘Student’, A Statistical Biography of William Sealy Gosset*, Edited
and Augmented by R. L. Plackett with the Assistance of G. A. Barnard, Oxford:
University Press.

There is a brief account of how Fisher
transformed Student’s *z*-test into the
modern *t*-test in the entry on
Student’s *t* distribution on the Earliest known
uses of some of the words of mathematics. There are several articles on the
subject, including.

C. Eisenhart
(1979) On the Transition from `Students’ *z*
to `Students’ *t*, *American Statistician*, **33**,
6-10. *JSTOR*

J. F. Box (1981) Gosset, Fisher
and the *t* Distribution, *American Statistician*, **35**, 61-66. *JSTOR*

J. F. Box
(1987) Guinness, Gosset, Fisher, and Small Samples, *Statistical Science*, **2**,
45-52. *JSTOR*

S. Senn and
Richardson, W. (1994) The First *t*-test, *Statistics in
Medicine* **13**, 785–803.

E. L. Lehmann (1999) “Student”
and Small-Sample Theory, *Statistical
Science*, **14**, 418-426.

Lehmann’s article also considers
the disagreement between Fisher and Gosset over robustness, occasioned by E. S.
Pearson’s review of the 2^{nd} edition of Fisher’s *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers.*
Their disagreement over randomization is considered by Senn.

S. Senn (2004) Added Values: Controversies concerning Randomization and Additivity in Clinical Trials, *Statistics in Medicine* **13**,
3729–3753.

After Gosset’s death Egon Pearson wrote a fine memoir and organised an edition of his papers:

E. S. Pearson
(1939) “Student” as Statistician, *Biometrika*, **30**, 210-250.* *

*‘Student’s’ Collected Papers* (edited by E.S. Pearson and
John Wishart, with a foreword by Launce McMullen.
1942. London: *Biometrika* Office.

This publication of the *Papers*
provided an opportunity to review Student’s contribution: see the reviews by
Cochran Annals of Mathematical Statistics, **15**, (1944), 435-438 *JSTOR* and Isserlis Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, **106**, (1943), 278-279 *JSTOR.*

The *Collected Papers* volume does *not*
contain Gosset’s review of *Statistical Methods for
Research Workers*

Student
(1926) Review of *Statistical Methods for Research Workers* * *(R.
A. Fisher) *Eugenics Review*, **18**, 148-150.

2008 was the centenary of Student’s paper on “the probable error of a mean” and the anniversary is being remembered in journals and at conferences. The relationship between Student and Fisher is certain to get some attention. So far, see

J. A. Hanley,
M. Julien & E. E. M. Moodie (2008) *t* Distribution Centennial: Student’s *z*, *t*,
and *s*: What if Gosset had *R*? *American
Statistician*, **62**, 64-69.

S. Senn (2008)
A Century of *t*-tests, *Significance*, **5**, 37-39.

S. L. Zabell (2008) On Student's 1908 paper “The probable error
of a mean,” with comments by S. M. Stigler, J. Aldrich, A. W. F. Edwards, E.
Seneta, P. Diaconis & E. L. Lehmann and rejoinder from Zabell,
*Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **103**, 1-20.

Ziliak and McCloskey, in their polemic against significance testing, cast Gosset as hero and Fisher as villain and emphasise the differences between them.

S. T. Ziliak
and D. N. McCloskey (2008) *The Cult of
Statistical Significance: How the Standard Error Costs Us Jobs, Justice, and
Lives*, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

The book is attracting attention and is being widely reviewed.

A. Spanos (2008) Review of Stephen Ziliak and Deirdre
McCloskey’s *The Cult of Statistical
Significance: How the Standard Error Costs Us Jobs, Justice, and Lives*, *Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics*,
**1**, (1). *PDF* . With reply by
Ziliak and McCloskey. *PDF*

T. M. Porter
(2008) Signifying Little, *Science, 320,
(June), 1292*.

Fisher and Sewall Wright see biographical sketch and correspondence

In the 1920s Fisher and Wright
(1889-1988) (*NAS* *Genetics* student's
appreciation) seemed to be doing parallel work on evolutionary biology.
Later, however, the agreements seemed to count less than the differences. The “controversy” between them was set off by Fisher and Ford (1947). Box has some discussion of the relationship between Fisher
and Wright. Bennett reproduces their correspondence and provides a commentary
on it; a few of the letters are reproduced on the Adelaide correspondence
site. The most thorough treatment of the relationship is in Provine’s
biography of Wright. Crow has given a shorter account of Wright’s work:

W. B. Provine (1986) *Sewall
Wright and Evolutionary Biology*. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

J. F. Crow
(1990) Sewall Wright's Place in Twentieth-century Biology, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **23**, 57-89.

There are several articles on the controversy.

W. B. Provine (1985) The R. A. Fisher - Sewall Wright
Controversy. *Oxford Surveys in
Evolutionary* *Biology*, **2**, (ed. R. Dawkins & M. Ridley),
197-219. Oxford University Press. (reprinted in Sarkar (1992)).

A. W.
F. Edwards (1987) Evolution and Optimization. *Nature*, **326**, 10.

A. W.
F. Edwards (1987) What Fisher Meant. *Nature*,
**329**, 10.

M. J. S. Hodge (1992) Biology and Philosophy (including Ideology): a Study of Fisher and Wright. In Sarkar (1992), 231-293.

R. A. Skipper
(2002) The Persistence of the R.A. Fisher-Sewall Wright Controversy, *Biology
and Philosophy*, **17**, 341-367. pdf

A. Plutynski (2005), Parsimony in the Fisher-Wright Debate, *Biology
and Philosophy*, **20**, 697-713.

Around 1930 Harold Jeffreys (1891-1989) geophysicist and applied mathematician began applying his version of the Bayesian argument to statistics. Fisher (1932) pounced on him for perpetrating a “howler”. Lane describes the 1932-4 dispute, Howie places it in the intellectual biographies of the protagonists and in the conflict between alternative conceptions of probability, while Aldrich (2004) is a quick survey; Aldrich (2005) gives an account of Jeffreys’s statistical career. Fisher and Jeffreys never agreed about the validity of the Bayesian approach but their relationship mellowed into one of relaxed toleration. Their developing relationship can be followed in the letters in Bennett (1990); the letters are reproduced on the Adelaide correspondence site. There are more personal memories in Swirles and Box. Aldrich (2002) tells a little of how Jeffreys translated Fisher’s ideas into Bayesian terms.

David A. Lane
(1980), Fisher, Jeffreys and the Nature of Probability, pp. 148-160 in Fienberg & Hinkley.

Harold Jeffreys
(1974) Fisher and Inverse Probability, *International
Statistical Review*, **42**, 1-3.

David Howie (2002) *Interpreting Probability:
Controversies and Developments in the Early Twentieth Century*, New York,
Cambridge University Press.

John Aldrich (2004) Harold Jeffreys
and R. A. Fisher, *ISBA Bulletin*, **11**, (June), 7-9.

John Aldrich
(2005) The Statistical Education of Harold Jeffreys, *International Statistical Review*, **73**, 289-307.

Bertha Swirles (Lady Jeffreys) (1991) Harold Jeffreys: Some
Reminiscences, *Chance*, **4**, 22-26.

John Aldrich
(2002) How Likelihood and Identification went Bayesian, *International Statistical Review*, **70**, 79-98.

See also Zabell (1992), Barnard (1992) and Aldrich (2008).

For more on
Jeffreys and the controversy see __Harold Jeffreys as Statistician__.

The reviews
include: Barnard *Biometrics* **39**, (Dec., 1983), 1121,* JSTOR*;
David *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **79**, (Sep., 1984),
728-729, *JSTOR*;
Hogg *College Mathematics Journal*, **15**, (Jan., 1984), 82-84,* JSTOR*; Kotz *American
Mathematical Monthly*, **92**, (Mar.,
1985), 219-223, *JSTOR*. Efron *Science,
New Series*, **220**, (May, 1983),
827-828, *JSTOR*,
has most to say about the scientific issues at stake while Yates *Journal of
the Royal Statistical Society, A,* **147**, (No. 1 1984), 116-118, *JSTOR*
has most to say about the Fisher-Neyman relationship (from Fisher’s point of
view)*.*

For a time Fisher and Neyman were both teaching at UCL. Churchill Eisenhart (1913-1994), a Neyman student who attended Fisher’s lectures, left a vivid account of the conflicts involved in

Ingram Olkin (1992) A Conversation with Churchill Eisenhart. *Statistical Science,* **7**, 514-5. *JSTOR*

Neyman gave his own account of his relations with Fisher

J. Neyman (1961) The Silver
Jubilee of My Dispute with Fisher, *Journal
of the Operations Research Society of Japan*, **3**, 145-154.

Neyman gave an overall judgement of Fisher’s work when he
reviewed the *Contributions *volume

J. Neyman (1951) Fisher’s Collected Papers: Contributions to
Mathematical Statistics, *Scientific Monthly*, **72**, No. 6,
406-408. *JSTOR*

Fisher
answered Neyman’s accusations that he had not acted in “good faith” in a letter
to P. H. H. (Horace) Gray. Neyman wrote a second
assessment after Fisher’s death: Neyman (1967).
Fisher
thought of Neyman as a meddling mathematician with no experience of science and criticised him in the *JRSSB*
(1955) article “Statistical Methods
and Scientific Induction” (*JSTOR*)
and in * Statistical
Methods and Scientific
Inference. *

Fienberg and Tanur
consider parallels and divergences in the work of Fisher and Neyman on experiments
and surveys

S.
E. Fienberg & J. M. Tanur
(1996) Reconsidering the Fundamental Contributions of Fisher and Neyman on
Experimentation and Sampling.*
International Statistical Review* **64**,
237-253.

Lehmann
considers the compatibility of the Fisher and Neyman views of testing in

E. L. Lehmann (1993) The Fisher,
Neyman-Pearson Theories of Testing Hypotheses: One Theory or Two? *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **88**, 1242-1249. *JSTOR*

See
also Hacking (1965), Zabell (1992) and Aldrich (2000).

Senn considers their dispute over additivity in
the analysis of variance:

S. Senn (2004) Added Values: Controversies concerning Randomization and Additivity in Clinical Trials, *Statistics in Medicine* **13**,
3729–3753.

Fisher’s
significance for others

Fisher
was significant for everyone who came into Statistics in the English-speaking
world—at least—in the 1920s, 30s, and 40s. The case of Jimmie
Savage was typical: he learnt the subject from Fisher’s *Statistical Methods
for Research Workers* and he later met and corresponded with
Fisher. See* Rereading
Fisher*.

The writings listed here relate to
individuals who knew Fisher and for whom Fisher was an important part of *their *story—mainly students and junior
colleagues. They are prominent in the ranks of the authors of Obituaries Fisher lectures ** **Papers on
genetics
Papers on
statistics.

Few people learnt Statistics from
Fisher—at least in the conventional way. Rothamsted was a research station and
Fisher was professor of *genetics* in London and in Cambridge. At
Rothamsted there were research students—Winifred Mackenzie, his computing
assistant and co-author, was one and F. E.
(Betty) Allan CSIRO
another—and “voluntary workers” such as Harold
Hotelling (1895-1973); see Hotelling’s review of *SMRW*. Fisher’s Rothamsted appointments,
J. O. Irwin
(1898-1982), J.
Wishart (1898-1956) and F.
Yates (1902-1994), learnt the Fisher approach by
working with him. In 1931 Wishart moved to Cambridge
taking Fisher’s ideas with him, influencing amongst others Jeffreys, M. S. Bartlett
(1910-2002) and W.
G. Cochran
(1909-1980). When Fisher became professor at University College he did not move
house and he was still a presence at Rothamsted when Yates took over the
Statistics department. Oscar
Kempthorne (1919-2000) was there in the early
40s. Important American contacts included Hotelling and George
W. Snedecor (1881-1974) who invited Fisher to
Iowa State. W.
J. Youden (1900-1971), E. A. Cornish (1909-1973)
and M. M. Barnard CSIRO studied with Fisher in London. In
France Georges Darmois
was an early exponent of Fisherian statistics and his
student Daniel Dugué spent time with Fisher; for the French statisticians see
Aldrich (2010). Georg Rasch took Fisher’s ideas to Denmark. C.
R. Rao (b. 1920) was Fisher’s only Cambridge PhD student in Statistics,
going to Fisher after he had published the Cramér-Rao
and Rao-Blackwell theorems! In the 1950s Fisher welcomed anyone like D. A. Sprott (b. 1930) who was not “wholly sold
on the Neyman-Pearson approach”.
Of the people who *never* worked with
Fisher, G. A.
Barnard (1915-2002) was probably the closest to him; their friendship began
in the late 40s after Barnard had conceded to Fisher after initially
disagreeing with him over testing in the 2X2 table.

E. S. Pearson (1957) John Wishart
1898-1956, *Biometrika*, **44**, 1-8. *JSTOR*

D. J. Finney
(1995) Frank Yates, *Biographical Memoirs
of Fellows of the Royal Society of London,* **41,** 554-573.

Healy (1995) on Yates.** **

W. L. Smith
(1978) Harold Hotelling 1895-1973, *Annals
of Statistics*, **6**, 1173-1183. *JSTOR*

K. J. Arrow
& E. L. Lehmann (2005) Harold Hotelling 1895-1973, *National
Academy of Sciences*,** 87**,
1-15.

Gertrude M. Cox; Paul G. Homeyer (1975) Professional and Personal Glimpses of
George W. Snedecor, *B**iometrics*, **31**, 265-301. * JSTOR*

P. A. P. Moran memoir of E. A. Cornish for the Australian Academy of Science.

E. B.
Andersen (1982) Georg Rasch (1901–1980), *Psychometrika*,
**47**, (4), 375-376.

J. Olsen *Essays
on Georg Rasch and his Contributions to Statistics*,
Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen. Extract.

P. Deheuvels
(1990) Daniel Dugué, *Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society A*, **153**,
99-100. *JSTOR*

M. H. DeGroot
(1988) A Conversation with George A. Barnard, *Statistical Science*, **3**,
196-212. * JSTOR*

D. V.
Lindley (2003) Professor George A. Barnard (1915-2002), *The Statistician*,
**52**, 231-234.

M. H. DeGroot (1987) A Conversation with C. R. Rao, *Statistical Science*, **3**, 53-67. * JSTOR*

A. K. Bera
(2003) The ET Interview: Professor C. R. Rao, *Econometric Theory*, **19**,
331-400. __ET
Interview: C. R. Rao__.

For Bartlett see

I. Olkin (1989) A Conversation with Maurice Bartlett, *Statistical Science*, **4,** 151-163. *JSTOR*

J. Gani
(ed) (1982) *The
Making of Statisticians*, New York: Springer-Verlag.

The
Gani volume also has an autobiography by D. J. Finney
who was at Rothamsted in the Yates era.

Darmois,
Irwin, Hotelling and Snedecor are in the *Statisticians
of the Centuries* volume.
The people mentioned in
this section appear among Fisher’s correspondents in Bennett (1990),
though some, like, Yates saw him so often they did not really need letters.

In biology Fisher’s most important collaborator was
E.
B. Ford (Papers in the Bodleian). Their
partnership began when Fisher was at Rothamsted and Ford was an undergraduate
at Oxford; their correspondence is available online.
When Ford published his *Ecological Genetics* soon after Fisher’s death,
he looked back on their partnership and dedicated the book to Fisher’s memory.
There is some relevant literature in the section on Sewall Wright. In
London and Cambridge
Fisher headed genetics departments. These were small departments and Fisher’s
influence on their members was strong. Amongst the staff and students in these
departments were C.
Bliss, J. H.
Bennett, W. Bodmer, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, A. W. F. Edwards, W.
D. (Bill) Hamilton, Mary
Lyon, K.
Mather, A. R. G. Owen, R.
R. Race, G. L. Taylor…. There is not as much bio- and autobiographical
material as in Statistics but see the following memoirs:

E. B. Ford (2005)
R. A. Fisher: An Appreciation, *Genetics*, **171**, 415-417. Genetics. (See also Box (2005))

B. Clarke (1995) Edmund Brisco Ford, *Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **41**, 147-168.

Joe Cain (2001)* *Ford, Edmund Brisco,* Encyclopedia of Life
Sciences *available to subscribing
institutions at http://www.els.net/

D. Lewis (1992) Sir Kenneth
Mather, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows
of the Royal Society*, **38**,
249-266.

C. Clarke (1985) Robert Russell
Race, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of
the Royal Society*, **31**, 445-492.

J. Cullen (1995) Sir George
Taylor, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows
of the Royal Society*, **41**,
459-469.

Witness Seminar (Oral History); The Rhesus Factor and Disease Prevention (2003).

See the Bill Hamilton
website for evidence of Fisher’s influence on him. See also A. Grafen (2004) Willam Donald
Hamilton,. *Biographical Memoirs of
Fellows of the Royal Society*, **50**,
109-132. here

_____________________________________________________

Papers on Statistics** **see also Pearson Student Neyman Jeffreys Fisher
lectures

Apart
from the Mahalanobis 1938 biography and the 1951 anniversary pieces for the
publication of the *Statistical Methods
for Research Workers*, all the articles date from after Fisher’s death. A
few are modern treatments of Fisher topics. The links are mostly to *JSTOR.* Usually the papers’ titles are
self-explanatory but it may help to know that Bennett (1991) about smoking and
Senn (1994) about randomisation.

Aldrich,
J. (1997) R. A. Fisher and the Making of Maximum Likelihood 1912-22, *Statistical Science*, **12**, 162-176. *JSTOR*

Aldrich, J.
(2000) Fisher’s “Inverse Probability” of 1930, I*nternational Statistical Review*, **68**, 155-172. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2003) The Language of the English Biometric School, *International
Statistical Review*, **71**, 109-131. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2005) Fisher and Regression, *Statistical
Science*, **20**, 401-417. pdf

Aldrich, J. (2007) Information and Economics in
Fisher’s Design of Experiments, *International
Statistical Review*, **75**, 131-149.
pdf

Aldrich, J. (2008)
R. A. Fisher on Bayes and Bayes’ Theorem, *Bayesian
Analysis*, **3**, 161-170. here

Aldrich,
J. (2008) Keynes
among the Statisticians, *History of
Political Economy*, **40**,
265-316. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2009) Burnside’s Engagement with the “Modern Theory of Statistics”. *Archive
for History of Exact Sciences*, **63**
(1), 51-79. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2009) England
and Continental Probability in the Inter-War Years *Journal
Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la
Statistique* December, pp. 24.

Aldrich,
J. (2010) The Econometricians’ Statisticians 1895-1945. *History of Political Economy*, **42**, (1), 111-154. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2010) Tales of Two Societies: London and Paris
1860-1940 *Journal
Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la
Statistique* December, pp.41.

Armate,
M. (1988) La construction des notions d'estimation et de vraisemblance chez
Ronald A. Fisher, *Journal de la Société
statistique de Paris*, **129**,
(1-2), 69-96.

Armitage, Peter (2003) **Fisher, Bradford Hill, and Randomization, ***International Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**,
925-928.

Barnard, G.
A. (1987) R. A. Fisher—A True Bayesian? *International
Statistical Review*, **55**, 183-189.

Barnard, G.
A. (1990) Fisher: a Retrospective (with discussion), *Chance*, **3**, 22-32.

Barnard, G. A. (1995) Pivotal
Models and the Fiducial Argument, *International
Statistical Review*, **63**, 309-323.** **

Barnard,
G. A. & D. A. Sprott** **(1983) The Generalised Problem of the Nile: Robust Confidence Sets
for Parametric Functions, *Annals of
Statistics*, **11**, 104-113. *JSTOR*

Basu, D. (1980) Randomization Analysis of Experimental Data: The Fisher
Randomization Test, (with discussion by D. V. Hinkley,
O. Kempthorne, D. A. Lane, D. V. Lindley and D. B.
Rubin)** ***Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **75**,
575-595. *JSTOR*

Bennett,
J. H. (1991) R. A. Fisher and the Role of a Statistical Consultant, *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Series A*, **154**, 443-445. *JSTOR*

Bingham, C. (1980) Distribution
on the Sphere, pp. 171-181 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Bliss, C. I. (1964) R. A.
Fisher’s Contribution to Medicine and Bioassay, *Biometrics*, **20**, 273-285.
*JSTOR*

Bodmer, Walter (2003) **RA Fisher, statistician and geneticist
extraordinary: a personal view, ***International Journal of
Epidemiology*, **32**, 938-942.

Box, J. F. (1980) Fisher: the
Early Years, pp. 35-45 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Box, J. F. (1980) R. A. Fisher
and the Design of Experiments, 1922-26, American Statistician, **34**, 1-7. *JSTOR*

Box, J. F. (2005)
A Reminiscence of R. A. Fisher, *American
Statistician*, **59**, 312-314. (See also Ford (2005))

Buehler, R. (1980) Fiducial
Inference, pp. 109-118 of Fienberg &
Hinkley.

Chalmers,
Iain (2003) **Fisher and Bradford Hill:
theory and pragmatism?*** International Journal of Epidemiology*,
**32**, 922-924.

Clarke, C.
(1991) **Invited Commentary on R. A.
Fisher, ***American Journal of Epidemiology*, **134**,
1371-1374.

Cochran, W. G. (1980) Fisher and
the Analysis of Variance, pp. 17-34 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Cook, R. D. (1980) Smoking and
Lung Cancer, pp. 182-191 of Fienberg
& Hinkley.

Conniffe, D. (1992) Keynes on
Probability and Statistical Inference and the Links to Fisher, *Cambridge Journal of Economics*, **16**, 475-489.

Cornish, E. A. (1964) Fisher’s
Activities in Australia 1958-62, *Biometrics*,
**20**, 372-373. *JSTOR*

Cox, N. J. (2008) Speaking Stata: Correlation with confidence, or Fisher's *z* revisited, *Stata** Journal*, **8**, 413-439.

Das
Gupta, S. (1980) Distribution of the Correlation Coefficient, pp. 9-16 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Das Gupta, S. (1980) Discriminant
Analysis, pp. 9-16 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Dawid, A. P. (1991) Fisherian Inference in Likelihood and Prequential
Frames of Reference (with discussion), *Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B*, **53**,79-109. *JSTOR*

Denis,
D. J. (2004) The Modern Testing Hybrid: R. A. Fisher's Fading Influence, with dicussion by Amatte, Bru, Gill, Kwan, Friendly, Lecoutre,
Poitevineau, Lecoutre,
Stigler and reply from Denis, *Journal
de la Société de Francaise de Statistique*, **145**, 5-68.

Doll, Richard (2003) **Fisher and Bradford Hill: their personal impact, ***International
Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**, 929-931.

Edwards, A.
W. F. (1978) R. A. Fisher’s Work on Statistical Inference. In *I
fondamenti dell’inferenza statistica*. Firenze: Parente, 117-124. Reprinted in A. W. F.* *Edwards
(1992)* Likelihood*.
Expanded edition.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1993) Galton,
Karl Pearson and modern statistical theory. In *Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. - The Legacy of his Ideas*, ed. M. Keynes,
91-107. London: Macmillan.

Edwards,
A.W.F. (1993) John Venn and R. A. Fisher. *The Caian*, November 1993, 64-66.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1996) The
Early History of the Statistical Estimation of Linkage, *Annals of Human
Genetics*, **60**, 237-249.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1997) Three Early
Papers on Efficient Parametric Estimation. *Statistical
Science* **12**, 35-47. *JSTOR*

Edwards, A. W. F. (1997) What Did
Fisher Mean by `Inverse Probability’ in 1912-22?, *Statistical Science*, **12**,
177-184. *JSTOR*

Edwards,
A. W. F (2005) “R. A. Fisher, Statistical Methods for Research Workers, 1925”
in I. Grattan-Guinness (ed) *Landmark Writings in
Western Mathematics : Case Studies, 1640-1940*, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Efron, B. & D. V. Hinkley
(1978) Assessing the Accuracy of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator: Observed
Versus Expected Fisher Information, *Biometrika*, **65**, 457-482.

Fienberg, S.E. (1980) Fisher's Contributions to the Analysis of Categorical Data, pp. 75-84 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Fienberg, S.E. (1997) Introduction to R. A. Fisher on
Inverse Probability and Likelihood. *Statistical
Science* **12**, 161. *JSTOR*

Finney, D. J. (1964) Sir Ronald
Fisher’s Contribution to Biometric Statistics, *Biometrics*, **20**, 322-329.
*JSTOR*

Geisser, S. (1980) Basic Theory of the
1922 Mathematical Statistics Paper, pp. 59-66 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Gower, J.
C. (1990) Fisher’s Optimal Scores and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. *Biometrics*, **46**, 947-961. *JSTOR*

Hald, A (1999) On the History of Maximum Likelihood in
Relation to Inverse Probability and Least Squares, *Statistical Science*, **14**,
214-222.

Hall, N. S. (2007) R. A. Fisher and his Advocacy of
Randomization, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **40**, 295-325.

Hall, N. S. (2010) Ronald Fisher and Gertrude Cox: Two
Statistical Pioneers Sometimes Cooperate and Sometimes Collide, *American Statistician*, **14**, 212-220.

Hampel, F. (2006), The Proper Fiducial Argument, *General Theory
of Information Transfer and Combinatorics*,
512-527.

Healy,
M. J. R. (2003) R. A. Fisher the Statistician, *Statistician* (*Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3), 303-310.

Hinkley, D. V. (1980) Theory of
Statistical Estimation: the 1925 Paper, pp. 85-94 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Hinkley, D. V. (1980)
Fisher’s Development of Conditional Inference, pp. 101-108 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Holschuh, N. (1980) Randomization and
Design: I, pp. 35-45 of Fienberg
& Hinkley.

Hotelling,
H. (1951) The Impact of R. A. Fisher on
Statistics, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46, **35-46.
*JSTOR*

Johnstone, D. J. (1987) Tests of Significance
Following R. A. Fisher, *British Journal
for the Philosophy of Science*, **38**,
481-499. *JSTOR*

Jones, D. A.
(2010) In Defense of Fisher, *American Scientist*, **98**,
(1), 3.

Lehmann** **E. L. (1990) Model Specification: The
Views of Fisher and Neyman, and Later Developments, *Statistical Science*, **5**,
pp. 160-168. *JSTOR*

**Lenhard****, J. (2006) Models
and Statistical Inference: The Controversy between Fisher and Neyman-Pearson, ***British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science*, Advance Access published on
January 3, 2006.

Li, C. C. (1968) Fisher, Wright and
Path Coefficients, *Biometrics*, **24**, 471-483. *JSTOR.*

Louçã, F. (2009) Emancipation through
Interaction—How Eugenics and Statistics converged and diverged, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **42**, (4), 649-684.

Ludbrook, J. (2005) R. A. Fisher's Life and Death in Australia, 1959–1962, *American
Statistician*, **59**, 164-165.

Mahalanobis, P. C. (1938) Professor
Ronald Aylmer Fisher, *Sankhya*,
**4**, 265-272.

Marks, Harry M
(2003) **Rigorous uncertainty: why RA
Fisher is important,** *International Journal of Epidemiology*,
**32**, 932-937.

Mather, K. (1951) R. A. Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*:
An Appreciation, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46, **51-54.
*JSTOR
*

Pearce,
S. C. (1979) Experimental Design: R.A.
Fisher and Some Modern Rivals, Statistician, **28**, 153-161. *JSTOR*

Perdersen, J. G. (1978) Fiducial
Inference, *International Statistical
Review*, **46**, 147-170.

Picard, R. (1980) Randomization
and Design: II, pp. 46-58 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Pratt, J. W. (1976) F. Y.
Edgeworth and R. A. Fisher on the Efficiency of Maximum Likelihood Estimation, *Annals of Statistics*, **4**, 501-514. *JSTOR*

Preece, D.A. (1990) R. A. Fisher and
Experimental Design: A Review. *Biometrics*
**46**, 925-935. *JSTOR*

Rao, C.
R. (1964) Ronald Aylmer Fisher—the Architect of Multivariate Analysis, *Biometrics*, **20**, 286-300. *JSTOR*

Rao, C. R. (1992) R. A. Fisher:
The Founder of Modern Statistics, *Statistical
Science*, **7**, 34-48. *JSTOR*

Runger, G. (1980)
Some Numerical Illustrations of Fisher’s Theory of Statistical Estimation, pp.
95-100 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Seal, H. (1967) The Historical Development of the Gauss
Linear Model, *Biometrika*, **54**, 1-24. *JSTOR*

Seidenfeld, T. (1992) R. A. Fisher’s
Fiducial Argument and Bayes’ Theorem, *Statistical
Science*, **7**, 358-368. *JSTOR*

Seidenfeld, T. (1992) R. A. Fisher on the Design of Experiments and Statistical Estimation. In Sarkar (1992), 23-36.

Senn, S.
(1994) Fisher’s Game with the Devil, *Statistics
in Medicine* **13**, 217-230.

Senn, S. (2006)
An Early “Atkins’ Diet”: R. A. Fisher Analyses a Medical “Experiment”. *Biometrical
Journal*, **48**,
193-204.

Speed, T. P. (1987) What is an
Analysis of Variance? (with discussion), *Annals
of Statistics*, **15**, 885-941. *JSTOR*

Stigler, S. M. (1973). Laplace,
Fisher and the Discovery of the Concept of Sufficiency, *Biometrika,* **60** 39-445. *JSTOR*

Stigler, S.M. (1999) The
Foundations of Statistics at Stanford, *American
Statistician* **53**, 263–266.

Stigler S. M.
(2001) Ancillary History, in M. C. M. de Gunst, C. A.
J. Klaassen, A. W. van der Vaart,
(eds.), *State of the Art in Probability
and Statistics; Festschrift for Willem R. van Zwet*,
Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Lecture Notes—Monograph Series.

Stigler
S. M. (2005) Fisher in 1921, *Statistical Science*,
**20**, 32-49. Project
Euclid

Stigler, S. M. (2006) How Ronald Fisher became
a mathematical statistician, *Mathématiques** et sciences humaines,* *n° 176, Winter 2006, special
issue: Contribution to the history of probabilities. Tribute issue to Bernard
Bru.*

Stigler, S. M. (2007) The Epic Story of Maximum Likelihood, *Statistical Science*, **22**, (4), 598-620 Project Euclid

Stigler, S. M. (2008) Fisher and the
5% Level, *Chance*, **21**, (4), 12.

Stolley, P. D. (1991) **When Genius Errs: R.A. Fisher and the Lung Cancer Controversy, ***American
Journal of Epidemiology*, **133**, 416-425.

Street, D.
J. (1990)* *Fisher’s Contributions
to Agricultural Statistics.* Biometrics*,
**46**, 937-945. *JSTOR*

Thompson, E.
A. (1990) R. A. Fisher’s Contributions to Genetical
Statistics.* Biometrics*, **46**, 905-914. *JSTOR*

Wallace,
D. L. (1980) The Behrens-Fisher and Fieller-Creasy Problems, pp. 119-147 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Welsh, A. H. and J.
Robinson (2005) Fisher and Inference for Scores, *International Statistical Review*, **73**, 131-150.

Wynder, E. L. (1991) Re: “**When Genius Errs: R.A. Fisher and the Lung Cancer Controversy,” ***American
Journal of Epidemiology*, **134**, 1467-1469.

Yates, F.
(1951) The Influence of *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers* on the Development of the Science of
Statistics, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46,**
19-34. *JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1964) Sir Ronald
Fisher and the Design of Experiments, *Biometrics*,
**20**, 307-321. *JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1964) Fiducial
Probability, Recognisable Sub-sets and Behrens’ Test, *Biometrics*, **20**, 343-360.
*JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1975) The Early
History of Experimental Design, pp. 581-595 of J. Srivastava
(ed) *A Survey
of Statistical Design and Linear Models*, Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Youden, W. J. (1951) The Fisherian Revolution in Methods of Experimentation, *Journal of the American Statistical
Association, ***46***,* 47-50. *JSTOR*

Zabell, S. (1989) R. A. Fisher on the History of
Inverse Probability (with discussion), *Statistical
Science*, **4**, 247-63. *JSTOR*

Zabell, S. (1992) R. A. Fisher and the
Fiducial Argument, *Statistical Science*,
**7**, 369-387. *JSTOR*

Papers on Genetics, Eugenics and Evolutionary Biology** **see also Pearson Wright Fisher lectures ** **

Ao, P. (2005) Laws of Darwinian Evolutionary Theory, *Physics of Life Reviews*, **2**,
117-156.

Band, H. T.
(2000) Sir Ronald Fisher and Natural Selection,** **, *Trends in Ecology &
Evolution*, **15**, 161-162.* *

Bartley, M. M. (1994) Conflicts in Human
Progress: Sexual Selection and the Fisherian
“Runaway,” *British Journal for the
History of Science*, **27**,
177-196.

Bodmer, W. F. (1992) Early British Discoveries in
Human Genetics: Contributions of R.A. Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane to the
Development of Blood Groups, *American Journal of Human Genetics*, **50**, 671–676.

Cain, A.J. (1988)
A Criticism of J. R. G. Turner’s Article “Fisher's Evolutionary Faith and the
challenge of Mimicry”. *Oxford
Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **5**,
(ed. P. H. Harvey & L. Partridge), 246-248. Oxford University Press.

Crow, J.F. (1990)
R. A. Fisher, a Centennial View. *Genetics*,
**124**, 207-211. Free text.

Crow, J.F. (2002)
Here’s to Fisher, Additive Genetic Variance, and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection. *Evolution*, **56**, 1313-1316. *JSTOR*

Edwards, A.
W. F. (1990) Fisher, *W*, and
the Fundamental Theorem. *Theoretical
Population Biology*, **38**, 276-284.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1990)
R. A. Fisher: Twice Professor of Genetics: London and Cambridge. *Biometrics*, **46**, 897-904. *JSTOR* Revised version in *Statistician* (*Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3), 311-318.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1994) The
Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. *Biological
Reviews* **69**, 443-474.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1996) W. D. Hamilton’s Darwinian
Predecessors, *TLS* 6^{th}
December, reprinted in* Galton Institute
Newsletter*, (June, 1997) here.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1998) The Eugenics Society and the
Development of Biometry. The 1997 Galton Lecture, London, 19th September. *Essays in the History of Eugenics*, ed.
R. A. Peel, 156-172. London: The Galton Institute.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1998) Natural Selection and the Sex
Ratio: Fisher’s Sources, *American
Naturalist* **151**, 564-569.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2000) *The Genetical
Theory of Natural Selection*. In Perspectives, ed. J. F. Crow and W. F.
Dove. *Genetics* **154**, 1419–1426.* Genetics Online*

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2000) Fisher Information and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection. *Rendiconti** (B) Istituto
Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere*,
Milano.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2000) Carl Düsing (1884) on the Regulation
of the Sex-ratio, *Theoretical Population
Biology*, **58**, 255-257.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2001) Darwin and Mendel United: the Contributions of Fisher, Haldane
and Wright up to 1932. In *Encyclopedia** of
Genetics*, ed. E. C. R. Reeve, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 77-83.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2005) Linkage Methods in Human Genetics before the Computer, *Human Genetics*, **118**, 515-30.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2006)
Fisher, Demetrius and Wright: contending models, *BioEssays**
***28**, 440.

Edwards, A. W.
F. (2007) R. A. Fisher's 1943 Unravelling of the Rhesus
Blood-Group System, *Genetics* **175**, 471–476.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2011) Mathematizing Darwin, *Behavioral**
Ecology and Sociobiology ***65**, 421–430.

Esposito, M. (2011) Utopianism in the British
Evolutionary Synthesis, *Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and
Biomedical Sciences*, **42**, 40-49.

Frank, S.
A. and Slatkin, M. (1992) Fisher’s
Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. *Trends
in Ecology and Evolution* **7**,
92-95.

Gould, S.
J. (1996) The Smoking Gun of Eugenics. In S. J. Gould (ed.) *Dinosaur
in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History* (pp. 296-308). London: Cape.

Grafen, A. (2003) Fisher the Evolutionary Biologist, *Statistician*
(*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3),
319-330.

Karlin, S. (1992) R. A. Fisher and
Evolutionary Theory, *Statistical Science*,
**7**, 13-33. *JSTOR*

Kempthorne, O. (1974) A Review of *Collected Papers of R. A. Fisher* ed. J. H. Bennett, *Social Biology*, **21**, 98-101.

Leigh, E.
G. jr. (1986) Ronald Fisher and the Development
of Evolutionary Theory. I. The Role of Selection.* Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **3**, (ed. R. Dawkins & M. Ridley), 187-223. Oxford University
Press.

Leigh, E. G. jr. (1987) Ronald Fisher and the Development of
Evolutionary Theory. II. Influences of New Variation on Evolutionary process.* Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*,
**4**, (ed. P. H. Harvey & L.
Partridge), 212-263. Oxford University Press.

Leigh, E. G. (1999) The Modern** **Synthesis, Ronald Fisher and
Creationism, *Trends in Ecology &
Evolution*, **14**, 495-498.

Mayo, O. (1990) R.
A. Fisher’s Contribution to Evolutionary Theory. *Evolución** Biológica*, **4**, 1-21.

Mooney, S. M.
(1995) H. J. Muller and R. A. Fisher on
the Evolutionary Significance of Sex, *Journal of the History of Biology*,* ***28**,* *133-149.

Moore, J.
(2007) R. A. Fisher: A Faith Fit for Eugenics, *Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History
and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences,* **38** (1), 110-135.

Moran, P.
A. P. and Smith, C. A. B. (1966) Commentary on R. A.
Fisher’s Paper 'The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance’. *Eugenics
Laboratory Memoirs XLI*, *Galton
Laboratory, University College London*.

Morrison, M.
(2002) **Modeling**** Populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and
Biometry, ***British Journal
for the Philosophy of Science*, **53**,
39-68.

Morrison, M.
(2006) **Unification,
Explanation and Explaining Unity: The Fisher-Wright Controversy, ***British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science*, **57 **(1), 233-245.

Norton, B.J. (1975)
Metaphysics and Population Genetics: Karl Pearson and the background to
Fisher’s multi-factorial theory of inheritance. *Annals of Science*, **32**,
537-553.

Norton, B.J.
(1978) Fisher and the Neo-Darwinian Synthesis. E. G. Forbes (ed.), *Human Implications of Scientific Advance.
Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of the
History of Science*. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press, pp. 481–494.

Norton, B.J. (1981) *La Situation Intellectuelle au Moment des Débuts de Fisher en Génétique
des Populations*. *Revue de Synthèse
IIIe serie*, **103-104**,
230-250. (and others in this
special number *R.A.Fisher** et l'histoire de la génétique des
populations*).

Norton, B. (1983)
Fisher’s Entrance into Evolutionary Science: the Role of Eugenics. *Dimensions of Darwinism. Themes and Counterthemes in Twentieth Century Evolutionary Theory*
(ed. M. Grene), 19-29. Cambridge University Press.

Novitski, E. (2004) On Fisher's Criticism of Mendel's
Results With the Garden Pea, *Genetics*, **166**, 1133-1136

O’Donald, P. (1990) Fisher’s Contributions
to the Theory of Sexual Selection as the Basis of Recent Research. *Theoretical Population Biology*, **38**, 285-300.

S. Okasha (2008) Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection—A Philosophical Analysis, *British
Journal for the Philosophy of Science*, **59
**(3), 319 - 351.

Piegorsch, W. W. (1990) Fisher’s
Contributions to Genetics and Heredity, with Special Emphasis on the Gregor Mendel Controversy. *Biometrics* **46**, 915-924. *JSTOR*

Pilpel, A. (2007) Statistics is not Enough: Revisiting
Ronald A. Fisher’s Critique (1936) of Mendel’s Experimental Results (1866) *Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences*,
**38**, 618-626.

Plutynski, A. (2005) **Explanatory Unification and the Early Synthesis, ***British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science*, **56**, 595-609.

Plutynski, A. (2006) What was Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem
of Natural Selection and What was It for? *Studies
in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy
of Biological and Biomedical Sciences*, **37**,
59-82.

Provine, W. B. (1978) The Role of Mathematical Population
Geneticists in the Evolutionary Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. *Studies in the History of Biology* **2**, 167-192.

Provine, W. B. (1990) Population Genetics
(reprint of papers by Fisher, Haldane, and Wright, with an introduction). *Bulletin of Mathematical Biology*, **52**, 201-318 (Special issue *Classics of Theoretical Biology*, Part
I).

Race, R.
R. (1964) Some Notes on Fisher’s Contributions to Human Blood Groups, *Biometrics*, **20**, 361-367. *JSTOR*

Race, R. R. and R. Sanger (1982)
Fisher’s Contribution to Rh, *Vox** Sanguinis*, 43, 354-356.

Sarkar, S. (2004) Evolutionary Theory
in the 1920s: The Nature of the “Synthesis”, *Philosophy of Science*, **71**, 1215–1226.

Tabery, J.
(2004) The “Evolutionary Synthesis” of George Udny
Yule, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **37**(1),
73-101.

Tabery, J.
(2008) R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the Origin(s) of Genotype–Environment
Interaction, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **41**, 717–761.

Turner, J.R.G. (1985)
Fisher’s Evolutionary Faith and the Challenge of Mimicry. *Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **2**, (ed. R. Dawkins & M. Ridley), 159-96. Oxford University
Press.

Turner, J.R.G. (1987)
Random Genetic Drift, R. A. Fisher, and the Oxford School of Ecological
Genetics. *The Probabilistic Revolution.
Vol. 2: Ideas in the Sciences* (eds. G. Gigerenzer,
L. Krüger & M. Morgan). Cambridge, Mass: MIT
Press/Bradford Books, 313-354.

Turner, J.R.G. (1988)
Reply: Men of Fisher’s? *Oxford Surveys in
Evolutionary Biology*, **5**, (ed.
P.H. Harvey & L. Partridge), 249-252. Oxford University Press.

Watt,
D. C. (2000) C P Blacker, R A Fisher and L Penrose on Eugenic Fundamentals, *Galton Institute Newsletter*, Parts I
and II.

Welling, F. (1986) What about R.
A. Fisher’s Statement of the “too good” Data of J. G. Mendel’s Pisum Paper? *Journal of Heredity*, **77**, 281-283.

Williams, C. B. (1964) Some
Experiences of a Biologist with R. A. Fisher and Statistics, *Biometrics*, **20**, 301-06. *JSTOR*

Wooding, S.
(2006) Phenylthiocarbamide: A 75-Year Adventure in Genetics and Natural
Selection, *Genetics*, **172**, 2015-2023. *Genetics Online*

These
books, in one way or another, take Fisher as their starting point. They
illustrate how Fisher continued to influence developments even after his long
life had ended. Although the books present the authors’ own ideas, they often
have interesting things to say about Fisher’s ideas.

T. Seidenfeld, (1979) *Philosophical
Problems of Statistical Inference: Learning from R. A. Fisher*, Dordrecht: Reidel.

A
philosopher attempts to develop Fisher’s ideas on fiducial probability.

A. W.F. Edwards
(1972/1992) *Likelihood* (Expanded Edition,
with a new preface), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

An
attempt to develop Fisher’s ideas on likelihood.

I. Hacking (1965) *Logic
of Statistical Inference, Cambridge*, Cambridge
University Press.

A
philosopher attempts to reconstruct the foundations of Statistics, taking issue
with some of Fisher’s ideas, while developing others.

B. R. Frieden (1998) *Physics
from Fisher Information: A Unification*, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

This book attempts to develop physical theory on the basis of Fisher information.

D. A. S.
Fraser (1968) *The** Structure of Inference*, New York: Wiley.

An early instalment of a continuing project of reconstructing fiducial inference.

O. E. Barndorff-Nielsen. & D. R. Cox (1994) *Inference and Asymptotics*,
London: Chapman & Hall.

A continuing project to develop
the conditional inference first proposed by Fisher in his 1934 Two New Properties of Mathematical Likelihood.** **

R. Royall (1997) *Statistical
Evidence: A Likelihood Paradigm*. London: Chapman & Hall.** **

J. K. Ghosh (ed)
(1988) *Statistical Information and
Likelihood: A Collection of Critical Essays by Dr. D. Basu*,
New York: Springer-Verlag.

Basu’s critical essays on Fisherian themes: ancillarity, likelihood, randomisation.

There
are Fisher memorial lecture series in the UK, USA and Australia. (See here for information
about the British series and here for
information about the US series, including lists of the lectures by year.) The *published*
lectures are listed below; sometimes the title does not match that of the
original lecture. The invitation to give the lecture is a recognition of the *lecturer’s* contribution and the lecture
is most often a tour d’horizon of the lecturer’s
specialism. There may be some remarks on how the specialism is rooted in
Fisher’s work. Some lectures have much more to say **about** Fisher, his statistics, his
genetics or both—they are marked* fff*.
The links are all to

Anderson,
T. W. (1996) R. A. Fisher and Multivariate Analysis, Statistical Science, **11**, 20-34. *JSTOR*

Anscombe,
F. J. (1982) How Much to Look at the Data, *Utilitas**
Mathematica*, **21A**, 23-28.

* fff *Bartlett,
M. S. (1965) R. A. Fisher and the First Fifty Years of Statistical Methodology,

Berger, J. (2003) Could
Fisher, Jeffreys and Neyman Have Agreed Upon Testing? *Statistical Science,*
**18,** 1-32 (2003). *Euclid*.

*fff** *Bodmer, W.F. (1990) Genetic
Sequences, *Proceedings of the Royal
Society* *B*, **241**, 85-92. *JSTOR*

*fff** *Box, G. E.
P. (1976) Science and Statistics, *Journal** of the American Statistical Association*, **71**, 791-799. *JSTOR*

Box, G. E. P. (1989) Quality
Improvement: an Expanding Domain for the Application of Scientific Method. *Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society A*, **327**,
617–630. *JSTOR*

Breslow, N.E. (1996) Statistics
in Epidemiology: the Case-control Study. *In
Advances in Biometry*, ed. Armitage, P. and David,
H. A., New York: Wiley, 287–318.

Brillinger,
D. R. (1992) Nerve Cell Spike Train Data Analysis: A Progression of Technique, *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **87**, 260-271. *JSTOR*

Chernoff, H. (1980) The Identification of an Element of a
Large Population in the Presence of Noise, **8**, 1179-1197. *JSTOR*

Cochran, W. G. (1973)
Experiments for Nonlinear Functions” *Journal
of the American Statistical Association*, **68**, 771-781. *JSTOR*

Cook, R. D. (2007)
Dimension Reduction in Regression, (with discussion), *Statistical Science*, **22**,
1-43. *Euclid*

Cox, D. R. (1984) Present
Position and Potential Developments: Some Personal Views. Design of Experiments
and Regression. *Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society* A **147**,
306–315. *JSTOR*

Daniel, C. (1973) One-at-a-time
Plans, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***68**,
353-360. *JSTOR** *

Dempster, A. P. (1998) Logicist
Statistics. 1. Models and Modeling. *Statistical Science,* **13**, 248–276.

* fff *Doll, R. (2002) Proof
of Causality: Deduction from Epidemiological Observation,

* fff *Edwards,
A. W. F. (1995) Fiducial Inference and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection. XVIIIth Fisher Memorial Lecture,

* fff *Edwards, A.
W. F. (1993) Mendel, Galton, Fisher.

Efron, B.
(1998) R. A. Fisher in the 21st Century, *Statistical
Science *(with discussion)*, ***13, **95-122. *Euclid*.

Fienberg, S.
E. (1981) Recent Advances in Theory and Methods for the Analysis of
Categorical Data: Making the Link to Statistical Practice. *Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute* **49**(2), 763-791.

Finney, D.J. (1979) Bioassay
and the Practice of Statistical Inference. *International
Statistical Review *

Fraser,** **D. A. S** ( **1991) Statistical Inference: Likelihood to Significance. *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **86**, 258-265. *JSTOR*

Goodman, L.A. (1968) The Analysis of
Cross-classified Data: Independence, Quasi-independence, and Interactions in
Contingency Tables with or without Missing Entries. *Journal of the American Statistical Association* **63**, 1091–1131. *JSTOR*

Healy,
M.J.R. (1995) Frank Yates, 1902–1994 – The Work of a Statistician. *International Statistical Review* **63**, 271–288.

Kalbfleisch, J. D. (2000) The Estimating Function
Bootstrap, *Canadian Journal of Statistics,* **30**, 449-499.

Karlin, S. and Matessi, C. (1983) Kin
Selection and Altruism. *Proceedings of
the Royal Society* B, **219**,
327–353. *JSTOR*

* fff *Kempthorne, O.
(1966) Some Aspects of
Experimental Inference,

Mallows, C. (1998) The
Zeroth problem. *The
American Statistician* **52**, 1-9.

**ff****f*** *Mayo, O. (2004) To What Extent has Fisher’s
Research Program been Fulfilled in Australia, *Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics*, **46**(4), 517-529.

Mosteller, F. (1989) Methods for Studying Coincidences
(with P. Diaconis) *Journal of the
American Statistical Association*, **84**, 853-861. *JSTOR*

**ff***f** *Rubin, D. B. (2005) Causal Inference
Using Potential Outcomes: Design, Modeling, Decisions,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **100**, 322-331.

**ff***f** * Savage, L. J.
(1976) On Rereading R. A. Fisher, (with discussion) *Annals of Statistics*, **4**,
441-500. *JSTOR*

**ff**** f** Speed, T. (2006) Recombination and Linkage,
Presentation pdf
(16MB)

Thompson, E.
A. (1996) Likelihood and Linkage: from Fisher to the Future. *Annals of Statistics ***24**, 449–465. *JSTOR*

Thompson, E.
A. (2007) 1953: An Unrecognised Summit in Human Genetic Linkage
Analysis, *Statistics Surveys, 1*.

Yates, F. (1966) Computers,
the Second Revolution in Statistics, *Biometrics*
**22**, 233–251. *JSTOR*

_____________________________________________________

Fisher

Chance, risk and health An Open University series of 4 podcasts on RA Fisher and his legacy

Fisher quotations compiled by A.W. F. Edwards

Fisher’s notes on the classification of the Rhesus blood groups

The syllabus for George Casella’s course (Statistical) Fisher in the 21st century

My other Fisher sites (referred to in this document)

Ronald
Fisher’s childhood home

Likelihood
and Probability in R. A. Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*

Student’s
review of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods*

E. S.
* *Pearson’s* *reviews* *of* *Fisher’s* Statistical
Methods*

Leon
Isserlis’s review of Fishers’ *Statistical Methods*

*Nature
review of Fisher’s Statistical Methods*

*BMJ
*review of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods*

General

Peter Lee’s History of Statistics has many interesting links.

For recent
literature Recent
Publications in the History of Probability and Statistics
at the *JEHPS*.

Peter Cameron’s Encyclopaedia of Design Theory treats a subject Fisher revolutionised.

Paul Handford’s Brief History of Population Genetics has a section on Fisher.

The *Current Index to Statistics* is useful for Fisher topics. There is
free access to its pre-1996
entries

MedHist the Wellcome Library’s gateway to internet resources for the history of medicine has sections on genetics and eugenics.

My __Figures from
the History of Probability and Statistics__ has a sketch of the history of
probability and statistics and notes on some of the key people.