**A Guide to R. A. Fisher**

Ronald Fisher in 1956

The
outstanding resource is the University of Adelaide Library’s R. A.
Fisher Digital Archive. The Archive stand as a monument to the efforts of J. H. (Henry)
Bennett (1926-2015) to preserve Fisher’s legacy.

Many
articles about Fisher are available through the institutional subscription service *JSTOR*.* *Links are provided to them as well.
Information about *JSTOR* can be had
from http://www.jstor.org/.

Ronald Aylmer Fisher was born in
London on 17^{th} February 1890. His father was a successful fine arts
auctioneer and for most of Ron’s childhood the family lived very comfortably in
Hampstead.
Ron showed ability at an early age. He was particularly precocious in
mathematics, though his biology teacher divided for “sheer brilliance” all
those he had ever taught into Fisher and the rest. Fisher went up to Caius College Cambridge graduating in 1912 with a first in
mathematics. Fisher’s tutor was an astronomer and his first paper On
an Absolute Criterion for Fitting Frequency Curves published while
he was still a student came out of his study of the theory of errors. However
Fisher’s hopes were fixed on the biometricians and he most badly wanted the
absolute criterion (the future maximum likelihood) to be noticed by them. In __Mendelism
and Biometry__, an address to an undergraduate society, Fisher
envisaged a synthesis of these contesting research programmes in heredity.
Fisher’s interest in heredity was combined with a commitment to eugenics; he
was one of the founders of the University of Cambridge Eugenics Society—see Veronica
di Mambro. This led to a friendship with Leonard
Darwin, son of Charles and president of the Eugenics Education
Society which published the *Eugenics
Review* for which Fisher would
write many pieces. Darwin’s support, financial, intellectual and
emotional, was important to Fisher especially in the early part of his career.

After
graduating Fisher had several jobs—in an actuarial office and on a farm in Canada amongst others. Poor eyesight barred him from service in the
First World War. He was a schoolmaster when he published his Frequency Distribution of the Values of the
Correlation Coefficient in
Samples from an Indefinitely Large Population* *(1915)
and on The
Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance
(1918). The first established a new era in the exact theory of sampling
distributions. The second vindicated *Mendelism
and Biometry* for it showed how Karl Pearson’s
biometric results could be explained by Mendelian theory.

In 1919 John Russell
of __Rothamsted
Experimental Station__ hired Fisher on a temporary basis to see if a
statistician could do anything with the mass of data accumulated there. Studies in
Crop Variation. I (1921) was the first of a stream of
papers showing what could be done. There had been some statistical work
on agricultural experiments before the war
involving ‘Student’ (W. S.
Gosset) and Fisher’s Cambridge tutor, the astronomer F.J.M. Stratton, but
Fisher raised the subject to a new level. Fisher left Rothamsted in 1933 as
head of a statistics department drawing pilgrims from all over the world. There
he developed the analysis of variance as well as a new approach to experimental
design. His principles of randomisation, replication and blocking were
presented in *Statistical Methods for Research Workers* (1925), The
Arrangement of Field Experiments (1926) and more fully in* The Design of
Experiments* (1935).

Fisher continued to work on
statistical and genetical theory. On
the Mathematical Foundations
of Theoretical Statistics (1922) and Theory
of Statistical Estimation (1925) advanced a new theory of estimation
in opposition to the Bayesian approach. It emphasised maximum likelihood as an
efficient way of extracting information from the data. Meanwhile Fisher was
reconstructing the theory of Pearson’s chi-squared test (On the Interpretation
of χ2 from Contingency Tables) and extending the scope of Student’s
distribution—see Applications
of "Student’s" Distribution. These developments, like the
analysis of variance, relied on a new system of distribution theory, based on
the interrelation of the normal *t*,
χ* ^{ 2}* and

Fisher’s
genetical research at Rothamsted concentrated on evolution, on integrating
Mendelian theory with Darwin’s theory of natural selection. His first major
theoretical paper was On
the Dominance Ratio (1922). He collaborated with E. B. Ford on the
analysis of selection in wild populations. His ideas on evolution were brought
together in* Genetical Theory
of Natural Selection* (1930).
He argued that Mendelism with its view of particulate inheritance did *not* contradict Darwinism but was
consistent with it. With Sewall
Wright and J. B. S.
Haldane, Fisher is generally recognised as one of
the architects of *The Modern Synthesis*—on
the theoretical side at least.

In 1933 Fisher succeeded Pearson as Galton Professor of Eugenics and head of the Galton Laboratory at University College, London. Fisher had much greater admiration for Francis Galton than for his disciple. Though Fisher was Pearson’s natural successor in both statistics and eugenics, he did not inherit the whole empire for a Department of Applied Statistics was split off headed by Pearson’s son, E. S. Pearson. This structure did not make for harmony and relations between Fisher and members of Pearson’s department, especially its leading theorist, Jerzy Neyman, gradually deteriorated.

In London Fisher continued to work on fiducial inference, an approach he had introduced in Inverse Probability (1930). In The Fiducial Argument (1935) he applied it to the Behrens-Fisher problem. His Two New Properties of Mathematical Likelihood (1934) showed how ancillary statistics could be used in conditional inference. On the biological side he set up a unit to study the genetics of blood groups; see Box (ch. 13). The unit, which included G. L. Taylor and R. R. Race, did important work on Rhesus blood groups. Fisher also had a breeding colony of mice.

In 1943 Fisher
returned to Cambridge as professor and head of the Department
of Genetics.
His *Theory of Inbreeding*
provided a theoretical analysis of the mouse experiments he had been conducting
since his London days. Fisher was profoundly unsympathetic to the mathematical
statistics that Neyman and Wald were developing in the United States. His* Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference *(1956)
criticised those developments and gave a theoretical defence of his own
practice. In 1958 Fisher challenged Austin Bradford Hill’s
inference from the association between smoking and lung cancer that the former
was an important cause of the latter; see* Smoking.
The Cancer Controversy*.
He retired officially from Cambridge in 1957 but stayed until 1959. He
spent the last three years of his life in Adelaide as a Research Fellow at the
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). His
contacts in Adelaide were J. H. Bennett and E. J. Cornish. Fisher died in
Adelaide on July 29^{th} 1962 and his ashes lie there in St. Peter’s
Cathedral.

Fisher
received plenty of recognition. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1929 (certificate
of election), awarded its Royal Medal in 1938, Darwin Medal in 1948 and
Copley Medal in 1955; he was knighted in 1952. Fisher inspired and gave warmth
and loyalty but intellectual differences often generated personal enmities. The
most enduring of these was with Karl Pearson; this had the result that after
1915 the leading statistician never published in the leading statistics
journal, Pearson’s *Biometrika*. Later
there were quarrels with Neyman and Wright.

*Main sources*: Box , *Savage* (a
brilliant review of Fisher’s statistical work) and

Yates, F. & K. Mather (1963) Ronald
Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962,
*Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the
Royal Society*, **9**, 91-120.

*Pictures*

St
Andrews Portraits
of Statisticians Portrait
at Gonville & Caius. Memorial window. Fisher’s
childhood home. Lloyd
Allison’s pictures of Fisher and of St. Peter’s Cathedral. Royal Society
portraits here
and here.

The 50^{th}
anniversary of Fisher’s death in 2012 has been commemorated by a
conference at the Royal Statistical Society. See here
for the programme.

_______________________________________________________

A full bibliography of Fisher’s writings is available from Adelaide.
This is an extended version of the bibliography in volume 1 of the *Collected Papers.*

Fisher’s
published six books and all went into more than one edition. Five appeared in
posthumous editions incorporating alterations he had planned. Only the *Genetical Theory* exists in a variorum
edition.

·
*Statistical Methods for Research
Workers*, 14 editions,
1925 /28 /30 /32 /34 /36 /38 /41 /44 / 46 /50 /54 /58 / 70, Edinburgh: Oliver
& Boyd. From the 1948 reprint of the 10^{th} edition the book was
also published in New York: by Hafner. There were translations into French,
German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese at least.

This
was Fisher’s most influential statistics book. It is essentially a book of
significance test recipes. Behind the recipes was the system of sampling
distributions based on the normal distribution. Fisher’s ideas on randomisation
in experiments were first presented here, as well as his reconstruction of
regression theory. New editions with extra recipes appeared every few years—the first edition had 239 pages,
the last 362 more densely filled pages. While new sections were interpolated
the basic structure remained unchanged and old material that had been
important, such as the intra-class correlation, was never retired. Some old
material was rewritten in the light of new developments, e.g. the text had to
accommodate the introduction of the fiducial argument in 1930. To see how the
paragraphs on probability and likelihood in the first chapter were rewritten
see Likelihood & Probability and follow the trail of red ink.
In 1951 an issue of *JASA* celebrated
the book’s silver jubilee. The first edition
is available on Christopher Green’s * Classics in the History of Psychology* website. Six reviews of the 1

·
*The Genetical Theory of Natural
Selection*, 3
editions 1930 /58 /99. Oxford University Press (1930), Dover (1958), Oxford
University Press (1999).

W. D. Hamilton
rated this book as “second in importance in evolution theory to Darwin’s *Origin*”. It launched the “fundamental
theorem of natural selection” the subject of much later debate. The reviews are
reviewed in Bennett
*Natural Selection* (pp. 35ff).
Only two reviews are currently available on *JSTOR*:
both emphasise the chapters on human populations—N. M. Grier in *Social Forces* Dec (1930) *JSTOR
*and A. B. Hill in *JRSS* No. 1
(1931) *JSTOR*.
Fisher prepared a second edition (1958) but the revisions were not carefully
done. J.
H. Bennett has edited a __complete variorum edition__
(1999) with numerous additional documents.*
*For
more information see B.
D. Neville’s review

·
*The Design of Experiments*, 8 editions, 1935 /37 /42 /47 /49 /51
/60 /66, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. From 5^{th} edition also
published New York: Hafner

This work expounded the
principles of experimental design Fisher had been developing since the mid 20s.
It was essentially an ideas book and much of the associated statistical
analysis was presented in *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers*. Over the years Fisher added some sub-sections
and changed some of the text but the final edition of the book is not very
different from the first. The first edition was reviewed by S. V. Eaton *Botanical Gazette*, **97**, (Dec., 1935), 426-427 *JSTOR*, Harold Hotelling *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **30**, (Dec., 1935), 771-772 *JSTOR*
and C. C. Craig *American Mathematical
Monthly*, **43**, (Mar., 1936),
180-181 *JSTOR*.

·
*Statistical Tables for Biological
Agricultural and Medical Research*
(with F. Yates), 6 editions, 1938 /43 /49 /53 /57 /63, Edinburgh: Oliver &
Boyd. From 3^{rd} edition also published New York: Hafner.

The basic tables were provided in* Statistical Methods for Research Workers*
with instruction in how to use them. Those presented here were much more
extensive—more distributions were covered and individual tables were less
abbreviated and successive editions brought in extra tables. The tables are
prefaced by an Introduction describing their use. Yates recalled the origins of
the book in his foreword to the 1990 compendium: “By the mid-1930s it became
increasingly obvious that a book of tables, containing properly bound copies of
those included in *Statistical Methods*, would be of great benefit to
practical workers. When I first suggested this Fisher was averse to it, but
eventually he changed his mind. I then discovered, somewhat to my surprise,
that he had indeed been thinking about this for some time.” The sixth (posthumous) edition is available from Adelaide here.
M. G. Kendall ends his review of the first edition with, “The book will be
indispensable to users of the newer methods in statistics.” *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*,
**102**, (1939), p. 298 *JSTOR*.

·
*Theory of Inbreeding*, 2 editions, 1949 /65, Edinburgh:
Oliver & Boyd. 2^{nd} edition also published New York: Academic
Press.

A theoretical investigation of certain aspects of inbreeding
and a presentation of the theory of junctions. Although the topic has both
practical and theoretical interest and the opening chapter makes an interesting
link with Darwin, this book has none of the general interest of the *Genetical Theory of Natural Selection*.
There is a review by M. S. Bartlett *JRSSA*, **113**, No. 2. (1950), 249-250 *JSTOR*

·
*Statistical Methods and Scientific
Inference*, 3
editions, 1956/59/74, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. Also published New York
Hafner.

This was Fisher’s only unified account of the principles
underlying his approach to statistical inference—significance tests, likelihood
and fiducial inference. It takes the form of a review of statistical inference
since Bayes. As he had been doing since the 20s, Fisher criticised the Bayesian
approach but he also criticised Neyman and Wald. Some of the points against
them are made in his 1955 *JRSSB*
article “Statistical
Methods and Scientific Induction” *JSTOR*. Some new material
was added in later editions. The first edition was reviewed
by N. T.
J. Bailey *JRSSA*, **120**, No. 1. (1957), 88-89 *JSTOR *, G. H. Jowett *Applied
Statistics*, **6**, No. 3, (1957),
226-227 * JSTOR*, M. S.
Bartlett

*Smoking. The Cancer Controversy: Some Attempts to Assess the Evidence.*Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, (1959).

Not a book but a pamphlet of 47
pages, reprinting the pieces Fisher had written on the topic. Apart from the
additional note ‘Inhaling’ these are reproduced in the *Collected Papers*. The volume was reviewed by C. C. Spicer *JRSSA*, **122**,
No. 4. (1959), 554-556, __JSTOR.__

·
*Statistical Methods*, *Experimental Design and Scientific Inference*,
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

A
compilation edited by J. H. Bennett containing the posthumous editions of* Statistical Methods for Research Workers,*
*Design of Experiments* and *Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference
*as published by Hafner with
a foreword by F. Yates.

The standard edition of Fisher’s papers is

J. H. Bennett
(1971/4) *Collected Papers of R. A. Fisher*
5 volumes, Adelaide: Adelaide University Press.

This has 294 items but even so it lacks most of Fisher’s book reviews and some of his published contributions to discussions. Sets can be purchased from the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo.

Fisher made a selection of his statistical
papers—and wrote notes on them—for the volume

These notes are included in the Bennett edition and in the
digitalised version from Adelaide. The Shewhart volume was reviewed by E. S.
Pearson Biometrika, **38**, No. 1/2
(Jun., 1951), 257-259, *JSTOR* and W. E. Deming *Science*, **113**, (Feb. 23, 1951), 216-217, *JSTOR.*

**Web
access**

·
Many of the articles are available from Adelaide
and there are links to several of these in this guide. All of the articles,
except for Fisher’s review of Keynes’s *Treatise on Probability*, (CP32A
in the list)
had previously appeared in the *Collected Papers*.

- Many are also available on
*JSTOR*. Unlike the Adelaide texts the*JSTOR*texts are searchable.

- Fisher wrote many short articles and very many
reviews for the
*Eugenics Review*. All issues of the journal are now available online.

Although
many of Fisher’s articles are available on the web, that does not make them
easy to read—technical literature written between forty and ninety years ago
seldom is. (Of the papers mentioned in the biographical
sketch the most approachable is
probably The
Arrangement of Field Experiments.)

i) Fisher wrote many
non-technical pieces. For the *Eugenics
Review* he wrote expositions of his genetic papers as well as pieces on
eugenics proper. In later years he wrote many perspective pieces. Here are some
examples.

·
Some Hopes of
a Eugenist. *Eugenics Review*, **5**: 309-315 (1914)

·
The
Causes of Human Variability. *Eugenics
Review*, **10**: 213-220. (1918)

·
Darwinian Evolution by Mutations. *Eugenics
Review*, **14**: 31-34 (1922)

·
The
Biometrical Study of Heredity. *Eugenics
Review*, **16**: 189-210. (1924)

·
The Bearing
of Genetics on Theories of
Evolution**.** *Science
Progress, ***27**: 273-287 (1932)

·
The
Contributions of Rothamsted to the Development of the Science of Statistics. Annual
Report Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1933, p. 43-50.

·
Uncertain
Inference. *Proceedings of the
American Academy of Arts and Science*, **71**:
245-258 (1936)* *

·
Has Mendel’s
Work been Rediscovered?* Annals of Science, ***1, **115-137, (1936)

·
The Rhesus Factor : A Study in Scientific Method. *American Scientist, ***35**: 95-103 (1947)

·
Statistics. In *Scientific Thought in the Twentieth Century,
*(ed. A.E. Heath), pp. 31-55. London : Watts, 1951.

·
Natural Selection
from the Genetical Standpoint. *Australian Journal of Science*, **22**: 16-17 (1959)

In these expositions Fisher did not just re-hash old
material, thus *Uncertain Inference*
contains the first statement of the problem of the Nile.

ii) His technical writings seem unnecessarily difficult because important steps in the argument are often left out. His main books are almost desperately non-technical but this only perplexes the reader who tries to reconstruct the underlying mathematical argument. Thus some of his publications have been reprinted with aids for the reader.

The
fundamental 1918 population genetics paper is reprinted with a detailed
analysis in

P. A. P. Moran and
C. A. B. Smith (1966) Commentary on R. A. Fisher’s Paper 'The Correlation
between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance’*. Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs XLI*,
Galton Laboratory, University College London. Reviewed by K. Mather *Population Studies*, **20**, (1967), 372-3 *JSTOR *and* *C. C. Li *Quarterly Review of Biology*, **42**, (1967), 425-426 *JSTOR*.

Two anthologies of statistical classics reproduce some of Fisher’s writing. These have introductions and bibliographies.

·
S.
Kotz & N. L. Johnson (1992) *Breakthroughs in Statistics Volumes 1 &
2*, New York, Springer.

In
volume 1, S. M. Geisser discusses (part of) “Mathematical Foundations of
Theoretical Statistics” (1922), the great programmatic work on statistical
theory. In volume 2, T. Speed discusses “The Arrangement of Field Experiments”
(1926) and S. C. Pearce discusses an extract from *Statistical Methods for Research Workers* (1925) dealing with the
analysis of variance.

·
H.
A. David & A. W. F. Edwards (2001) *Annotated Readings in the History of
Statistics*, New York: Springer.

Edwards
discusses “Inverse Probability”, the first presentation of the fiducial
argument.

Fisher’s
correspondence & manuscripts

·
Fisher’s
papers are in the Barr-Smith
Library of the University of Adelaide. (See also Nancy Hall.)
Fisher carried on an extensive correspondence from
the late 1920s and letters make up the bulk of the collection, although there
are some unpublished manuscripts and notes. From the list
of correspondents it seems Fisher corresponded with virtually everybody.
Note that much of the material is now available online. The letters in Adelaide
formed the basis of the two volumes of published correspondence edited by J. H.
Bennett. See below.

·
Adelaide
has also issued a file of miscellaneous
notes and a list of the contents
of Fisher’s library.

·
University
College London (UCL)
has correspondence with Gosset and Karl Pearson.

·
The
National
Register of Archives lists some further holdings in the UK

·
There
are letters in the Hotelling papers at Columbia
University

·
The
American Philosophical Society
Library has extensive holdings of the papers of American scientists. For
Fisher the most significant collection is the Sewall Wright Papers
but there is Fisher material in other collections: Milislav
Demerec Papers L. C. Dunn Papers Raymond Pearl Papers
Bronson
Price Papers. The entries have useful biographical information on their
subjects. The APS also have the papers of John Tukey but these are not
yet catalogued.

Presumably
more material will become available as the papers of those who corresponded
with Fisher pass into library collections.

Published correspondence

Much
valuable material has been published with useful notes by various editors.

·
E.
S. Pearson (1968) Some Early Correspondence between W. S.
Gosset, R. A. Fisher and Karl Pearson, with Notes and Comments, *Biometrika*, **55**, 445-457. *JSTOR*

These
letters (originals
in UCL) are to or from or about Fisher in his earliest days as a statistician.

·
*Letters from W. S. Gosset to R. A.
Fisher 1915-1936*:
Summaries by R. A. Fisher with a Foreword by L. McMullen, printed by Arthur
Guinness for private circulation and placed in a few libraries.

For
Fisher’s statistical work up to the mid-30s the correspondence with Gosset
(Student) is the most useful source (The originals
are in UCL). There is no editorial apparatus. The second edition of 1970 has a
few letters not in the first of 1962. The letters are best read in conjunction
with the biographies by Box
and E. S. Pearson.

- J.
H. Bennett (1983) (ed.)
*Natural Selection, Heredity, and Eugenics. Including Selected Correspondence of R. A. Fisher with Leonard Darwin and Others*. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

This selection is valuable for
Fisher’s genetics in the period 1915-1938: Bennett’s introduction is an
excellent guide to this side of Fisher’s work.
The correspondence with Darwin reveals more of Fisher’s feelings
than the cordial but more professional correspondence with Gosset. This volume,
based on Adelaide material, is also useful for Fisher’s relations with Sewall
Wright and J. B. S. Haldane. Fisher’s undergraduate paper on *Mendelism and Biometry* is included.
There are reviews by D. J. Finney *Biometrics*,
**40**, (Dec.,
1984), p. 1209 *JSTOR, *Garland E. Allen* Isis, ***77**, (Mar., 1986), pp. 168-169 *JSTOR *and* *A. W. F. Edwards* Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*,* A*,** 150***, *(1987), pp. 168-169 *JSTOR.*

·
J.
H. Bennett (1990) (ed) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected Correspondence of R. A.
Fisher*, Oxford, University Press.

This is based on material in
Adelaide and relates to Fisher’s statistical work after 1930. The volume is a *selection*:
many of Fisher’s correspondents are not here and not all of the letters of the
correspondents who are here are included. The volume includes correspondence
with the statisticians mentioned below as well
as with Darmois, Fraser, Fréchet, Savage and Tukey. There are interesting comments on the book
and on Fisher in

G. A. Barnard
(1992) Review of *Statistical
Inference and Analysis: Selected Correspondence* of R. A. *Fisher *(edited by J. H. Bennett). *Statistical Science*, **7**, 5-12. *JSTOR*

A. P. Dempster (1991) Fisher’s
Letters: *Statistical Inference and
Analysis. Selected Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by R. A. Fisher; J. H.
Bennett, *Science New Series*, **252**, No. 5002, 143-144. *JSTOR*

A. W. F. Edwards (1991) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected
Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by J. H. Bennett, *Biometrics*, **47**, 199-1200.
*JSTOR*

A. W. Kemp (1993) *Statistical Inference and Analysis: Selected
Correspondence of R. A. Fisher*. by R. A. Fisher; J. H. Bennett, *The Statistician* , **42**, 75-76. *JSTOR*

_______________________________________________________

*Writing about Fisher* is *not* a well-defined category.
Fisher was such an important figure that to write about his subjects was
inevitably to write about his ideas. Modern work on *the* analysis of variance usually makes no direct reference to him
but in the 1930s it was *Fisher’s*
analysis of variance. Writing on other Fisher topics—particularly controversial
ones like fiducial inference, the Behrens-Fisher problem or the fundamental
theorem of natural selection—can be as much about Fisher as anything with his
name in the title.

The
hundreds of references below *illustrate*
different ways of approaching Fisher. The grouping of items is rough and
unsystematic; there is no category of *articles
taking off from Fisher *as that would have produced thousands of references.
The electronic format makes it easy for you to make your own specialised list:
to make one on, say, the fiducial argument start by searching on fiducial.

There
is the fine full-scale **biography** by
Fisher’s daughter.

·
Joan
Fisher Box (1978) *R. A. Fisher: The Life
of a Scientist*, New York: Wiley. Preface

This covers both Fisher’s
scientific career and his personal life. Many of those who worked with Fisher were
still alive and the book makes excellent use of their recollections. The book
conveys very well how Fisher saw his controversies but it is worth consulting
treatments from the other side: see Fisher’s significant others.
Kruskal’s review essay provides additional perspective

W. Kruskal
(1980) The Significance of Fisher: A Review of *R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist* by Joan Fisher Box, *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **75**, 1019-1030. *JSTOR*

There are less detailed reviews by Rao *Mathematical
Reviews*, Yates *Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society, A*, **142**, (1979), 504-506 *JSTOR*, Finney *Biometrics*, **35**,
(1979), 357-358 *JSTOR*, Dempster *Science*, **203**,
No. 4380. (Feb. 9, 1979), p. 537, *JSTOR*, Kanji *Statistician*, **30**,
(1981), 157-158 *JSTOR*, Calder *Statistician*, **36**,
(1987), 60-62 *JSTOR*. Porter *Journal of Heredity*, **28**,
(1987), 215 here.
The article “Science and Statistics” by G.E.P. Box (Joan’s husband) is an
interesting companion piece to the biography.

There
is a useful **overview** of Fisher’s **statistical** work

·
S.
E. Fienberg & D. V. Hinkley (1980) (eds) *R. A. Fisher: An Appreciation*, New York, Springer.

This
contains essays on the individual fields to which Fisher contributed. The
individual essays appear below and can be found by searching for Fienberg.
There is a detailed review by Oscar Kempthorne *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, 78,
(1983), 482-490 *JSTOR.* This is not only an account of the
book but a record of Kempthorne’s feelings about Fisher. There is a note by Seneta in *Mathematical
Reviews*.

Recently
three **mini-symposia** on Fisher have appeared. The *Statistician*
articles were associated with the blue
plaque occasion of 2002 and survey Fisher’s main activities. The *IJE*
articles focus on smoking; see below for other articles on this theme.
The “Mendel-Fisher controversy” began with Fisher’s 1936 paper Has Mendel’s work been rediscovered?; see below for other
articles on this theme.

·
S.
Senn, P. J. Green, M. J. R. Healy, A. W. F. Edwards, A. Grafen
(2003) A Blue Plaque for Fisher, *Statistician* (*Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3), 297-330.

·
P. Armitage,
W. Bodmer, I. Chalmers, R. Doll, H. Marks*
*(2003)* International Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**, (6),
922-948.

·
A.
Franklin, A. W. F. Edwards, D. J. Fairbanks, D. L. Hartl, T. Seidenfeld (2008) *Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy*,
University of Pittsburgh Press.

.

Obituaries, memorials and
reminiscences

Ronald
Fisher has been remembered in publications ranging from *The Caian, *his college magazine, to the *Dictionary of National Biography*. The list here is arranged
chronologically. 1962-7 was the time for obituaries and appreciations and 1990
was the Fisher centenary. There were no obituaries in the main genetics
journals as they do not seem to have published obituaries at the time of
Fisher’s death. Except for Yates &
Mather the links are to *JSTOR*.

*The
Times*, London,
Tuesday 31 July 1962. Anonymous, but said to be by V.B. Wigglesworth. Followed
some days later by supplementary material by G.A. Barnard, Sir John Russell and
C. I. Bliss. Available
from St Andrews.

Sir Ronald
Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962 (in Obituary) *Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society. A*, (1962), **125**, 668. *JSTOR*

A. R. G. Owen
(1962) An Appreciation of the Life and Work of Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher F.R.S.,
F.S.S. Sc.D., *Statistician*, **12**, 313-319. *JSTOR
*

W. J. Youden
(1962) Memorial to Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher: 1890-1962, *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **57,** 727-728. *JSTOR*

C. D. Darlington and J. A. Fraser
Roberts (1962) Sir Ronald Fisher, F.R.S., F.S.S. *Eugenics Review, 54
, (3), 120-122*.

F.
Yates (1962) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) *Revue de l’Institut
International de Statisitique*, **30**, (2), 280-282.

M. Fréchet (1963) Letter to the President of
the Royal Statistical Society, *Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society. Series A*,
**126**, 169-170. (part of the following
entry)

J. O. Irwin, G. A. Barnard, K. Mather, F.
Yates, & M. J. R. Healy (1963) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962, *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Series A*, **126**, 159-178. *JSTOR*

M. G. Kendall (1963) Ronald Aylmer Fisher, 1890-1962, *Biometrika*, **50**, 1-15. *JSTOR*,

F. Yates & K. Mather (1963) Ronald
Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962, *Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **9**, 91-120.

J. Neyman. (1967) R. A. Fisher (1890-1962): An Appreciation,
*Science*, **156**, 1456-1460. *JSTOR*

W. G. Cochran
(1967) Footnote [To Neyman 1967], *Science*,
**156**, 1460-1462. *JSTOR*

F. Yates (1981) Fisher, Sir Ronald
Aylmer, *The Dictionary of National
Biography, 1961-70*, ed. E. T. Williams and C. S. Nicholls, pp. 361-362,
Oxford University Press.

L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1990)
Recollections of Whittingehame Lodge. *Theoretical
Population Biology*, **38**, 301-305.

C.
Clarke (1990) Professor Sir Ronald Fisher, F.R.S. *British Medical Journal*, **301**,
1446-1448.

A. W. F.
Edwards (1990) Commemorative windows in Hall for John Venn and R. A.
Fisher. *The Caian, November 1990*,
Cambridge: Gonville and Caius College, 67-68.

A. W. F. Edwards (1990) R. A. Fisher, 1890-1962. XV International Biometric Conference, Budapest, 2-6 July 1990; Proceedings of Invited Papers, 3-6.

C. B.
Goodhart (1990) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sc.D., F.R.S. *The Caian, November 1990*, Cambridge:
Gonville and Caius College, 68-73.

J. C.
Gower (1990/1) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962, *Mathematical* *Spectrum*, **23**, 76-86.

Of course
many of those who knew Fisher have left more informal recollections, e.g., the
cosmologist Fred Hoyle in Fisher
quotations (the last one) and the mathematician Christopher Zeeman in *The
Linnean*, **22**,
(2006), 10-11 recall conversations with him. There are more recollections in
Nathan Keyfitz (2010) Fisher and Friends, *Significance*, **7**, (4),
185.

Encyclopedia
articles give brief surveys of Fisher and his work. They can also provide
linked articles on people and/or topics associated with Fisher: in Statistics
Karl Pearson, W. S. Gosset, J. Neyman, etc) and analysis of variance, fiducial
inference, design of experiments, likelihood, chi-squared, information,
sufficiency, ancillarity etc; in genetics/evolutionary biology Pearson, W.
Bateson, Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane E. B. Ford and evolution, natural
selection, modern synthesis, sex ratio, … For statistics the *Encyclopedia of Biostatistics* and *Statisticians
of the Centuries* have
the fullest links and for biology the *Encyclopedia
of Life Sciences*; this last has many articles on Fisher topics and Fisher
people e.g. evolution, the sex-ratio, E. B. Ford, Karl Pearson and Sewall
Wright* *

M. Ruse (2006)
Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *Encyclopedia of
Life Sciences, Wiley* available to subscribing institutions at http://www.els.net/

N. S. Hall
(2004) Fisher, Sir Ronald. *Encyclopedia of Social Measurement *(ed. K.
Kempf-Leonard) 39-. New York: Elsevier

A. W. F. Edwards (2002) Fisher, R.
A. *Encyclopedia of Genetics*. New
York: Academic Press.

S.
L. Zabell (2001) Ronald Aylmer Fisher. *Statisticians of the Centuries*
(ed. C. C. Heyde and E. Seneta) pp. 389-397. New York: Springer.

A. W. F.
Edwards (2001) Darwin and Mendel united: the contributions of Fisher, Haldane
and Wright up to 1932. *Encyclopedia of Genetics*. London: Fitzroy
Dearborn.

A. W. F. Edwards (2001) Ronald A.
Fisher. *International Encyclopedia of the
Social and Behavioural Sciences*. Kidlington, Oxford: Pergamon.

J. F. Box & A. W. F. Edwards
(1998) Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *Encyclopedia
of Biostatistics* **2**, 1523-1529.
Chichester: Wiley.

J. F. Box (1997) Fisher, Ronald
Aylmer, *Leading Personalities in
Statistical Sciences from the Seventeenth Century to the Present*, 99-108.
New York: Wiley.

A. W. F.
Edwards (1987) Fisher, Ronald Aylmer. *The
New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics*, London : Macmillan, Volume II,
376-377.

J. F. Box (1982) Fisher, Ronald
Aylmer, *Encyclopedia of Statistical
Science, ***3, **103-111. New York:
Wiley.

M. S. Bartlett (1978) Fisher, R.
A., *International Encyclopedia of
Statistics*, **1**, 352-358. New
York: Free Press.

N. T. Gridgeman (1972) Fisher, R.
A., *Dictionary of Scientific Biography*,
**5**, 7-11.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher’s
work is discussed in histories of the various fields to which he contributed.
See the following.

·
A.
Hald (1998) *A History of Mathematical
Statistics from 1750 to 1930.* New York: Wiley.

This is a detailed technical history.
Despite the title it extends beyond 1930 to cover most of Fisher’s work.

·
A.
Hald (2007) *A History of Parametric
Statistical Inference from Bernoulli to Fisher, 1713-1935.* New York:
Springer.

This is essentially a second
edition of part of Hald’s 1998 book.

·
J. Aldrich (2016) The Origins of Modern
Statistics: the English Statistical School in *The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy* ed. Alan Hájek
and Christopher Hitchcock

A sketch of the
Galton-Pearson-Fisher development.

·
G.
Gigerenzer, Z. Switjink, T. Porter, L. Daston & L. Kruger (1989) *The Empire of Chance*, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

Fisher is a major twentieth century
presence in this general history of probability and statistics.

·
J.
W. Tankard (1984) *The Statistical Pioneers*, Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Essentially a collection of
biographies with a chapter on Fisher.

·
H. O. Lancaster (1969) *The** Chi-squared Distribution*, New York: Wiley.

A historically informed monograph
on a subject to which Fisher made important contributions.

·
D.
A. MacKenzie (1981) *Statistics in Britain
1865-1930: the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge*, Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press.

A sociology of science perspective
on Statistics, Genetics and Eugenics with a chapter on Fisher’s work.

·
W.
B. Provine (1971) *The Origins
of Theoretical Population Genetics*. University of Chicago Press.

·
E. Mayr (1982) *The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance*,
Cambridge MA.,
Bellknap Press.

Mayr did not appreciate Fisher
and this book of nearly 1000 pages devotes only a page or so to him.* *

· Garland E. Allen (1988) Bibliographic Essays: Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century.

There are several essays on Fisher;
they appear below and can be found by searching on Sarkar.

·
J.
Gayon (1998) *Darwinism’s Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis
of Natural Selection*, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

An account of evolutionary
theory from Darwin to the Modern Synthesis. There is a review by Michael R. Rose (2001)

Once More with
Feeling. *Journal of Evolutionary Biology* **14** (3), 519-519.

·
Stephen
Jay Gould (2002) *The Structure of
Evolutionary Theory*, Cambridge MA.: Belknap Press.

This is a personal interpretation of the present-day state of the subject but it contains plenty of history.

This history of the British
Eugenics movement has a chapter on Fisher.

- E. J. Russell (1966)
*A History of Agricultural Science in Great Britain 1620-1954*, London, George Allen & Unwin.

Russell brought Fisher to Rothamsted. His book emphasises the role of Rothamsted in the development of agricultural science in Britain. Russell himself is the subject of

H. G.
Thornton (1966) Sir Edward John Russell**, ***Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **12**, 457-477.

·
J.
C. Gower, J. C. (1988) Statistics and Agriculture, *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A*, **151**, 179-200. *JSTOR*

A survey of the British scene from the end of the 18^{th}
century.

·
Anthony
C. Atkinson & R. A. Bailey (2001) One Hundred Years of the Design of
Experiments On and Off the Pages of *Biometrika*, *Biometrika*, **88**,
53-97.

Because Fisher boycotted *Biometrika*
after 1918 (biographical
sketch) his
presence in this history is strictly “off the page”. See

J. Aldrich (2013) Karl Pearson's
Biometrika: 1901-36, *Biometrika*, **100**, (1), 2-15.

Many
of the **technical terms** in modern
Statistics came from Fisher. See

·
David,
H. A. First (?) Occurrence of Common Terms in Statistics and Probability, Appendix
B and pp. 219-228 of H. A. David & A. W. F. Edwards (ed) (2001) *Annotated Readings in the History of
Statistics*, Springer New York.

·
Or search for **Fisher** in Jeff Miller’s Earliest known uses of some of
the words of mathematics and Earliest
uses of symbols in probability and statistics pages. Many of the entries
have links to the papers where Fisher first used the terms.

·
There
is an account of how Fisher transformed Karl Pearson’s statistical language in

J. Aldrich (2003) The Language of
the English Biometric School, *International Statistical Review*, **71**,
109-131.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher in textbooks

Modern statistics textbooks refer to the “Fisher exact test”, “Fisher information”, etc. but they rarely indicate the depth and breadth of his contribution. Some contributions were so fundamental that they are invisible and not attributed to him or indeed to anybody.

*Methods of Correlation
Analysis* by US Department of Agriculture statistician Mordecai Ezekiel was
perhaps the first textbook to give prominence to Fisher’s ideas. Henry Daniels
recalled of teaching at Cambridge, “When
I was learning statistics from John Wishart in the mid-thirties there were two
recommended textbooks: Fisher’s *Statistical
Methods*, which one read with respect, and Tippett’s
*Methods of Statistics*, which provided
understanding.” Snedecor’s textbook was widely
used in the US while Mather’s carried an endorsement from Fisher.

·
M.
Ezekiel (1930) *Methods of Correlation Analysis*, Wiley: New York.

·
L. H. C. Tippett (1931) *The** Methods of Statistics. An Introduction mainly
for Workers in the Biological Sciences*, London: Williams & Norgate.

·
George W. Snedecor (1937) *Statistical Methods
Applied to Experiments in Agriculture and Biology*, Ames, Iowa: Collegiate Press.

·
K.
Mather (1943) *Statistical Analysis in Biology*, London: Methuen.

Cramér’s
synthesis puts Fisher’s
contribution alongside that of others and so provides some perspective on it

·
H.
Cramér (1946) *Mathematical Methods of
Statistics*, Princeton University Press, London.

There
are frequent references to Fisher’s ideas on inference in

D. R. Cox & D. V. Hinkley
(1974) *Theoretical Statistics*,
London: Chapman & Hall.

In biology Fisher *does* figure in some modern
textbooks

- A. W. F. Edwards
(1999)
*Foundations of Mathematical Genetics*, second edition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. - J. Maynard Smith (1998)
*Evolutionary Genetics*, second edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

_____________________________________________________

Fisher was involved with other scientists in a variety of
ways. Of course the categories are not mutually exclusive, though there do not
seem to have been cases of co-authors and students becoming enemies.

- Co-authors: C.S. Stock (1915) W. A. Mackenzie (1922 twice, 23) H. G. Thornton (1922, 27, 34) J. Davidson (1922) S. Oden (1924) P. R. Ansell (1925), E. B. Ford (1926, 28, 39, 40, 47, 48, 50) J. Wishart (1927, 30, 31) T. Eden (1927, 29) L. H. C. Tippett (1928) T. N. Hoblyn (1928), B. Balmukand (1928), S. Bartlett (1931) F. R Immer (1932) O. Tedin (1932), F. Yates (1934), P. H. H. Gray (1934), C. Diver (1934), S. Barbacki (1936), K. Mather (1936 twice, 1940, 42, 43) E. A. Cornish (1937, 60) H. Gray (1937) G. L. Taylor (1939, 40, 44), J. Huxley (1939) J. Vaughan (1939) W. H. Dowdeswell (1940, 48) W. R. G. Atkins (1943) J. A. Fraser Roberts (1943) S. B. Holt (1944) R. R. Race (1944, 46) L. Martin (1945, 51) V. C. Martin (1947, 48) M. F. Lyon (1947) A. R. G. Owen (1947) D. Dugué (1948) G. D. Snell (1948) W. Landauer (1953) V. C. Fyfe (1955) M. J. R. Healy (1956).

See Box for information on many of these and their work with Fisher. There are additional references below. Russell’s history is useful for Fisher’s Rothamsted collaborators. An early Rothamsted collaborator was H. G. Thornton, the chief bacteriologist

P.S
Nutman. (1977) Sir Henry Gerard
Thornton**, ***Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal
Society*, **23**, 557-574.

·
Voluntary workers at
Rothamsted: E. Somerfield (1923), L. H. C. Tippett (1923-5), J. E. James
(1926), T. N. Hoblyn (1925-6), B. Balmakund
(1927-8), A. J. Page (1927-8), D. W. Boehme (1928), W. H. Beckett (1928), J. B.
Hutchison (1928), H. Hotelling (1928), H. G. Sanders (1929), B. P. Scattergood
(1929), J. Pepper (1929), G. W. Nye (1929),
W. G. Eggleton (1929), R. J. Kallamkar (1920-32), F. E. Allan (1929-30), H. W. Jack
(1929), J. W. Hopkins (1930-2), C. H. N.
Jackson (1930). E. Anderson (1930), H.
C. Arnold (1930), A. de Oliveira Franco (1930), B. Christidis
(1930), C. H. Goulden (1930), A. W. R. Joachim
(1930), A. L. Murray (1930-1), F. R. Immer (1930-1),
R. F. Summerby (1931), S. H. Justensen
(1931), H. R. Hoskins (1931), J. T. Campbell (1931), F. Bilington
(1931), H. B Bescoby (1931), H.J. Buchanan-Wollaston
(1931), T. Eden (1932), H. B. Bescoby (1932), S. A. Stouffer (1932), R. O. Illiffe (1932),
R. S. Koshal (1932-3), I. Bacher (1932), P. E. Turner
(1932), J. Rasmussen (1932), C. Stuart Christian (1932-3), R. K. S. Murray
(1932), R. A. Taylor (1932), A. Bigot (1933), R. A. Scott (1933), S. S. Wilks
(1933), H. L. G. Milne (1933), J. B. Hutchison (1928, 1933), A. P. Malan
(1933), I. Zacopanay (1933-4), A. V. Coombs (1933-4).
From Parolini (2015).

·
Enemies In his obituary piece in *The Times*
Barnard wrote “his devotion to scientific truth being literally passionate, he
was an implacable enemy of those whom who judged guilty of propagating error.”
There were serious breaches with Karl Pearson,
Sewall Wright and Jerzy Neyman amongst others. See below.

·
Friends. From
Barnard in *The Times *again,“He
was capable of tremendous charm and warmth in friendship.” One important friendship
outside of the usual colleague/student pattern was that with Mahalanobis. Their relationship was like
that between friendly potentates. P. C. Mahalonobis (1893-1972) was a physicist
turned statistician who set up the Indian Statistical Institute in 1931. He and
Fisher made contact in the 1920s and Fisher became an important ally in
establishing Statistics in India. Their friendship is discussed by Box and also by

A. Rudra (1996) *Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis: A Biography,* Oxford University Press,
Delhi.

P. C. Mahalanobis (1964) Some
Personal Memories of R. A. Fisher,*
Biometrics*, **20**, 368-371. *JSTOR*

S. M. Stigler (2018) Mahalanobis
& Fisher: Mathematical Statistics as a Global Enterprise,*Sankhya** B*, 1-12.

Some relationships were of such
importance in the history of 20^{th} century Statistics and Genetics
and/or in Fisher’s life that they have their own literatures. The relationship
with Leonard Darwin was an important personal relationship. The relationships
with the others reflect Fisher’s changing position, as he got older and his
authority increased. Pearson and Gosset were his significant seniors, Wright
was a contemporary while *Fisher* was
the significant senior for Neyman and Jeffreys.

Someone who belongs here is E.
S. Pearson. However, Fisher saw Egon Pearson as a proxy, first for his
father, Karl Pearson, and then for his collaborator Jerzy Neyman. Some of the
material under Neyman is useful for Fisher’s relations with ESP but the best
source is Pearson’s biography of Student. The reviews
Pearson wrote of the first two editions of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for
Research Workers* drew replies from Fisher.

Fisher
and Karl Pearson see biographical
sketch

In 1912 Karl Pearson
(1857-1936) St
Andrews** **dominated Statistics and Biometry but by the end of
the 20s Fisher had replaced him as the leader in both subjects. On Fisher’s death Fréchet wrote, “Les
statisticiens du monde entier savent quelle dette ils doivent à l’école
statistique brittanique, et en particulier, aux deux grands savants, qui ont,
l’un créé, l’autre transformé le statistique mathématique, Karl Pearson et Sir
Ronald Fisher” (1963). However, it is clear from Fisher’s Statistics
and his * Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference
*that Pearson was no “grand savant” for him.

Personal relations between the men began to be cold from 1917, when Fisher felt Pearson had treated him badly, and Fisher was still expressing bitterness twenty years after Pearson’s death. Fisher’s contempt for Pearson found expression in some unlikely ways, e.g. in his celebration of the work of Pearson’s contemporary W. F. Sheppard. The rift occurred at a critical point in Fisher's career but it was less vital for Pearson and there is more on the relationship in Box than in either of the Pearson biographies. E. S. Pearson was reticent on the relationship, because the events were too recent and the people too close, and, though Porter has some discussion, he is more interested in earlier formative events in his subject’s life.

Egon S. Pearson (1936/8) Karl
Pearson: An Appreciation of Some Aspects of his Life and Work, In Two Parts, *Biometrika*, **28**, 193-257, **29**,
161-247. *JSTOR*,
*JSTOR
*(Published as a
book by Cambridge University Press, in 1938.)

Theodore M. Porter (2004) *Karl Pearson: the Scientific Life in a
Statistical Age. *Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press

Pearson (1968)
contains important documents and a valuable commentary. Other general discussions include:

A. W. F. Edwards (1994) R. A.
Fisher on Karl Pearson, *Notes and Records
of the Royal Society of* *London,* **48**, 97-106. *JSTOR*

S. Sarkar (1995) J. B. S. Haldane
and R. A. Fisher’s Draft Life of Karl Pearson,* Notes and Records of the* *Royal
Society of London,* **49**,119-124. *JSTOR*

Fisher’s
letters to Pearson from 1933 to -35 are available on the Adelaide correspondence
site.

There were many points at issue between Fisher and Pearson. On the genetic side see Provine and

B. Norton and Pearson, E.
S. (1976) A Note on the Background to and Refereeing of R. A.
Fisher’s 1918 Paper 'The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of
Mendelian inheritance’. *Notes &
Records of the Royal Society of London,* **31**, 151-62. *JSTOR*

Fisher
(1918) reconciled Mendelism and Biometry. Morrison tries to identify the
assumptions behind Fisher’s reconciliation and those behind Pearson’s rejection
of reconciliation.

M. Morrison (2002) Modelling
Populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and Biometry, *British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*, **53**, 39-698.

On
the statistical
side see Hald,
Lancaster (1969), Aldrich
(1997) and Stigler (2005) as well as

S. E. Fienberg (1980) Fisher’s
Contribution to Categorical Data, pp. 75-84 in Fienberg & Hinkley.

R. Mensch (1980) Fisher and the
Method of Moments, pp. 67-74 in Fienberg
& Hinkley.

D. Baird (1983) The Fisher/Pearson
Chi-Squared Controversy: A Turning Point for Inductive Inference, *British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science*, **34**, 105-118. *JSTOR*

H. F. Inman (1994) Karl Pearson and
R. A. Fisher on Statistical Tests: A 1935 Exchange from Nature, *American Statistician*, **48**, 2-11. *JSTOR*

For more on Pearson see Karl Pearson: A Reader’s Guide. 2007 was the sesquicentenary of Pearson’s birth and the anniversary generated this discussion of the relationship between Pearson (errors) and Fisher (advances):

Stigler, S. M. (2007) Karl Pearson’s
Theoretical Errors and the Advances They Inspired, *Statistical Science*, **23**,
(2), 261-271.

Fisher and Leonard Darwin see biographical sketch

L. H. Darwin (1850–1943)
had a strong influence on Fisher and on the course of his career. From Box‘s
account he was like a surrogate father. Darwin was honorary president of the Eugenics
Education Society (see Mazumdar)
when he and Fisher met. Although Darwin was not a scientist, Fisher discussed
scientific questions with him: their letters are reprinted (with notes) in Bennett
and copies of the originals are available on the web.
*The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection*
is dedicated to him: “In gratitude for the encouragement, given to the author,
during the last fifteen years, by discussing many of the problems dealt with in
this book.” The versatile Major Darwin—after retiring from the Royal Engineers
he campaigned for bimetallism—was remembered in the obituary pages of the *Economic
Journal* by J. M. Keynes and his sister-in-law Margaret Keynes, who was
Darwin’s niece

Obituary (in
Notes and Memoranda) *Economic Journal*, **53**, 438-448 (1943) JSTOR

Another niece, Gwen Raverat, has a portrait
of Uncle Lenny in

Gwen Raverat
(1952) *Period Piece: A Cambridge
Childhood*, London: Faber & Faber.

See also

A. W. F. Edwards
(2004) Leonard Darwin *New Dictionary of
National Biography*, Oxford: Oxford University
Press.

N. Serpente (2016) More than a Mentor: Leonard
Darwin’s Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism
into Eugenics and Darwinism, *Journal of
the History of Biology*, **49**,
461–494.

Fisher
and ‘Student’ (W. S. Gosset)
see
biographical sketch

Of the older statisticians the most sympathetic to Fisher was W. S. Gosset (1876-1937) St. Andrews; their relationship can be followed through the Letters. Their one public disagreement was about randomisation in experiments. Fisher greatly admired ‘Student’ (see the obituary) and gave him generous credit: ‘Student’s’ work had effected a “logical revolution”. The modest Gosset thought that “Fisher would have discovered it all anyway.” Their relationship is discussed by Box, Pearson (1968), and by

E. S. Pearson (1990) *‘Student’, A Statistical Biography of William Sealy Gosset*, Edited
and Augmented by R. L. Plackett with the Assistance of G. A. Barnard, Oxford:
University Press.

There is a brief account of how
Fisher transformed Student’s *z*-test
into the modern *t*-test in the entry
on Student’s *t* distribution on the Earliest known
uses of some of the words of mathematics. There are several articles on the
subject, including.

C. Eisenhart (1979) On the
Transition from `Students’ *z* to
`Students’ *t*, *American Statistician*, **33**,
6-10. *JSTOR*

J. F. Box (1981) Gosset, Fisher and
the *t* Distribution, *American Statistician*, **35**, 61-66. *JSTOR*

J. F. Box
(1987) Guinness, Gosset, Fisher, and Small Samples, *Statistical Science*, **2**,
45-52. *JSTOR*

S. Senn and
Richardson, W. (1994) The First *t*-test, *Statistics in
Medicine* **13**, 785–803.

E. L. Lehmann (1999) “Student” and
Small-Sample Theory, *Statistical Science*,
**14**, 418-426.

Lehmann’s article also considers
the disagreement between Fisher and Gosset over robustness, occasioned by E. S.
Pearson’s review of the 2^{nd} edition of Fisher’s *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers.*
Their disagreement over randomization is considered by Senn.

S. Senn (2004) Added Values: Controversies concerning Randomization and
Additivity in Clinical Trials, *Statistics
in Medicine* **13**, 3729–3753.

After Gosset’s death Egon Pearson wrote a fine memoir and organised an edition of his papers:

E. S. Pearson
(1939) “Student” as Statistician, *Biometrika*, **30**, 210-250.* *

*‘Student’s’ Collected Papers* (edited by E.S. Pearson and
John Wishart, with a foreword by Launce McMullen. 1942. London: *Biometrika*
Office.

This publication of the *Papers*
provided an opportunity to review Student’s contribution: see the reviews by
Cochran Annals of Mathematical Statistics, **15**, (1944), 435-438 *JSTOR* and Isserlis Journal of the
Royal Statistical Society, **106**,
(1943), 278-279 *JSTOR.*

The *Collected Papers* volume does *not*
contain Gosset’s review of *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*

Student
(1926) Review of *Statistical Methods for Research Workers* * *(R.
A. Fisher) *Eugenics Review*, **18**, 148-150.

2008 was the centenary of Student’s paper on “the probable error of a mean” and the anniversary is being remembered in journals and at conferences. The relationship between Student and Fisher is certain to get some attention. So far, see

J. A. Hanley,
M. Julien & E. E. M. Moodie (2008) *t*
Distribution Centennial: Student’s *z*,
*t*, and *s*: What if Gosset had *R*? *American Statistician*, **62**, 64-69.

S. Senn (2008)
A Century of *t*-tests, *Significance*, **5**, 37-39.

S. L. Zabell
(2008) On Student's 1908 paper “The probable error of a mean,” with comments by
S. M. Stigler, J. Aldrich, A. W. F. Edwards, E. Seneta, P. Diaconis & E. L.
Lehmann and rejoinder from Zabell, *Journal
of the American Statistical Association*, **103**, 1-20.

Ziliak and McCloskey, in their polemic against significance testing, cast Gosset as hero and Fisher as villain and emphasise the differences between them.

S. T. Ziliak
and D. N. McCloskey (2008) *The Cult of
Statistical Significance: How the Standard Error Costs Us Jobs, Justice, and
Lives*, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

The book is attracting attention and is being widely reviewed.

A. Spanos
(2008) Review of Stephen Ziliak and Deirdre McCloskey’s *The Cult of Statistical Significance: How the Standard Error Costs Us
Jobs, Justice, and Lives*, *Erasmus
Journal for Philosophy and Economics*, **1**,
(1). *PDF* . With reply by Ziliak and
McCloskey. *PDF*

T. M. Porter
(2008) Signifying Little, *Science, 320,
(June), 1292*.

Fisher and Sewall Wright see biographical sketch and correspondence

In the 1920s Fisher and Wright
(1889-1988) (*NAS* *Genetics* student's
appreciation) seemed to be doing parallel work on evolutionary biology.
Later, however, the agreements seemed to count less than the differences. The “controversy” between them was set off by Fisher and Ford (1947). Box has some discussion of the relationship between Fisher
and Wright. Bennett reproduces their correspondence and provides a
commentary on it; a few of the letters are reproduced on the Adelaide correspondence
site. The most thorough treatment of the relationship is in Provine’s biography
of Wright. Crow has given a shorter account of Wright’s work:

W. B. Provine
(1986) *Sewall Wright and Evolutionary
Biology*. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

J. F. Crow
(1990) Sewall Wright's Place in Twentieth-century Biology, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **23**, 57-89.

There are several articles on the controversy.

W. B. Provine
(1985) The R. A. Fisher - Sewall Wright Controversy. *Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary* *Biology*,
**2**, (ed. R. Dawkins & M. Ridley),
197-219. Oxford University Press. (reprinted in Sarkar (1992)).

A. W.
F. Edwards (1987) Evolution and Optimization. *Nature*, **326**, 10.

A. W.
F. Edwards (1987) What Fisher Meant. *Nature*,
**329**, 10.

M. J. S. Hodge (1992) Biology and Philosophy (including Ideology): a Study of Fisher and Wright. In Sarkar (1992), 231-293.

R. A. Skipper
(2002) The Persistence of the R.A. Fisher-Sewall Wright Controversy, *Biology
and Philosophy*, **17**, 341-367. pdf

A. Plutynski
(2005), Parsimony in the Fisher-Wright Debate, *Biology and Philosophy*, **20**,
697-713.

Around 1930 Harold Jeffreys (1891-1989) geophysicist and applied mathematician began applying his version of the Bayesian argument to statistics. Fisher (1932) pounced on him for perpetrating a “howler”. Lane describes the 1932-4 dispute, Howie places it in the intellectual biographies of the protagonists and in the conflict between alternative conceptions of probability, while Aldrich (2004) is a quick survey; Aldrich (2005) gives an account of Jeffreys’s statistical career. Fisher and Jeffreys never agreed about the validity of the Bayesian approach but their relationship mellowed into one of relaxed toleration. Their developing relationship can be followed in the letters in Bennett (1990); the letters are reproduced on the Adelaide correspondence site. There are more personal memories in Swirles and Box. Aldrich (2002) tells a little of how Jeffreys translated Fisher’s ideas into Bayesian terms.

David A. Lane (1980), Fisher,
Jeffreys and the Nature of Probability, pp. 148-160 in Fienberg & Hinkley.

Harold Jeffreys
(1974) Fisher and Inverse Probability, *International
Statistical Review*, **42**, 1-3.

David Howie (2002) *Interpreting Probability:
Controversies and Developments in the Early Twentieth Century*, New York,
Cambridge University Press.

John Aldrich (2004) Harold Jeffreys
and R. A. Fisher, *ISBA Bulletin*, **11**, (June), 7-9.

John Aldrich
(2005) The Statistical Education of Harold Jeffreys, *International Statistical Review*, **73**, 289-307.

Bertha Swirles
(Lady Jeffreys) (1991) Harold Jeffreys: Some Reminiscences, *Chance*, **4**, 22-26.

John Aldrich
(2002) How Likelihood and Identification went Bayesian, *International Statistical Review*, **70**, 79-98.

See also Zabell (1992), Barnard (1992) and Aldrich (2008).

For more on Jeffreys and the
controversy see __Harold Jeffreys as Statistician__.

The reviews include:
Barnard *Biometrics* **39**, (Dec., 1983), 1121,* JSTOR*;
David *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **79**, (Sep., 1984),
728-729, *JSTOR*;
Hogg *College Mathematics Journal*, **15**, (Jan., 1984), 82-84,* JSTOR*; Kotz *American Mathematical Monthly*, **92**, (Mar., 1985), 219-223, *JSTOR*. Efron *Science,
New Series*, **220**, (May, 1983),
827-828, *JSTOR*,
has most to say about the scientific issues at stake while Yates *Journal of
the Royal Statistical Society, A,* **147**, (No. 1 1984), 116-118, *JSTOR*
has most to say about the Fisher-Neyman relationship (from Fisher’s point of
view)*.*

For a time Fisher and Neyman were both teaching at UCL. Churchill Eisenhart (1913-1994), a Neyman student who attended Fisher’s lectures, left a vivid account of the conflicts involved in

Ingram Olkin
(1992) A Conversation with Churchill Eisenhart. *Statistical Science,* **7**,
514-5. *JSTOR*

Neyman gave his own account of his relations with Fisher

J. Neyman (1961) The Silver
Jubilee of My Dispute with Fisher, *Journal
of the Operations Research Society of Japan*, **3**, 145-154.

Neyman gave an overall judgement of Fisher’s work when he
reviewed the *Contributions *volume

J. Neyman (1951) Fisher’s Collected Papers: Contributions to
Mathematical Statistics, *Scientific Monthly*, **72**, No. 6,
406-408. *JSTOR*

Fisher
answered Neyman’s accusations that he had not acted in “good faith” in a letter
to P. H. H. (Horace) Gray. Neyman wrote a second assessment after Fisher’s
death: Neyman (1967).
Fisher
thought of Neyman as a meddling mathematician with no experience of science and criticised him in the *JRSSB*
(1955) article “Statistical Methods
and Scientific Induction” (*JSTOR*)
and in * Statistical
Methods and Scientific
Inference. *

Fienberg and Tanur consider
parallels and divergences in the work of Fisher and Neyman on experiments and
surveys

S.
E. Fienberg & J. M. Tanur (1996) Reconsidering the
Fundamental Contributions of Fisher and Neyman on Experimentation and Sampling.* International Statistical Review* **64**, 237-253.

Lehmann
considers the compatibility of the Fisher and Neyman views of testing in

E. L. Lehmann (1993) The Fisher,
Neyman-Pearson Theories of Testing Hypotheses: One Theory or Two? *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,
**88**, 1242-1249. *JSTOR*

See
also Hacking (1965), Zabell (1992) and Aldrich (2000).

Senn considers their dispute over additivity in the analysis of
variance:

S. Senn (2004) Added Values: Controversies concerning Randomization and
Additivity in Clinical Trials, *Statistics
in Medicine* **13**, 3729–3753.

Fisher’s
significance for others

Fisher
was significant for everyone who came into Statistics in the English-speaking
world—at least—in the 1920s, 30s, and 40s. The case of Jimmie
Savage was typical: he learnt the subject from Fisher’s *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers* and he later met and corresponded with
Fisher. See* Rereading
Fisher*.

The writings listed here relate to
individuals who knew Fisher and for whom Fisher was an important part of *their *story—mainly students and junior
colleagues. They are prominent in the ranks of the authors of Obituaries Fisher lectures ** **Papers on
genetics
Papers on
statistics.

Few people learnt Statistics from
Fisher—at least in the conventional way. Rothamsted was a research station and
Fisher was professor of *genetics* in London and in Cambridge. At
Rothamsted there were research students—Winifred Mackenzie, his computing
assistant and co-author, was one and F. E.
(Betty) Allan CSIRO
another—and “voluntary workers” such as Harold
Hotelling (1895-1973); see Hotelling’s
review of *SMRW*. Fisher’s Rothamsted appointments, J. O. Irwin
(1898-1982), J.
Wishart (1898-1956) and F.
Yates (1902-1994), learnt the Fisher approach by
working with him. In 1931 Wishart moved to Cambridge taking Fisher’s ideas with
him, influencing amongst others Jeffreys, M. S. Bartlett
(1910-2002) and W.
G. Cochran
(1909-1980). When Fisher became professor at University College he did not move
house and he was still a presence at Rothamsted when Yates took over the
Statistics department. Oscar
Kempthorne (1919-2000) was there in the early 40s. Important American
contacts included Hotelling and George
W. Snedecor (1881-1974) who invited Fisher to Iowa State. W.
J. Youden (1900-1971), E. A. Cornish (1909-1973) and M. M. Barnard CSIRO studied with Fisher in London. In
France Georges Darmois
was an early exponent of Fisherian statistics and his student Daniel Dugué
spent time with Fisher; for the French statisticians see Aldrich (2010). Georg Rasch
took Fisher’s ideas to Denmark. C.
R. Rao (b. 1920) was Fisher’s only Cambridge PhD student in Statistics,
going to Fisher after he had published the Cramér-Rao and Rao-Blackwell
theorems! In the 1950s Fisher welcomed anyone like D. A. Sprott (b.
1930) who was not “wholly sold on the Neyman-Pearson approach”. Of the people who *never* worked with Fisher, G. A. Barnard
(1915-2002) was probably the closest to him; their friendship began in the late
40s after Barnard had conceded to Fisher after initially disagreeing with him
over testing in the 2X2 table.

E. S. Pearson (1957) John Wishart 1898-1956, *Biometrika*, **44**, 1-8. *JSTOR*

D. J. Finney
(1995) Frank Yates, *Biographical Memoirs
of Fellows of the Royal Society of London,* **41,** 554-573.

Healy (1995) on Yates.** **

W. L. Smith
(1978) Harold Hotelling 1895-1973, *Annals
of Statistics*, **6**, 1173-1183. *JSTOR*

K. J. Arrow
& E. L. Lehmann (2005) Harold Hotelling 1895-1973, *National
Academy of Sciences*,** 87**,
1-15.

Gertrude M. Cox; Paul G. Homeyer (1975) Professional and Personal Glimpses of
George W. Snedecor, *B**iometrics*, **31**,
265-301. * JSTOR*

P. A. P. Moran memoir of E. A. Cornish for the Australian Academy of Science.

E. B.
Andersen (1982) Georg Rasch (1901–1980), *Psychometrika*, **47**, (4), 375-376.

J. Olsen *Essays
on Georg Rasch and his Contributions to Statistics*, Ph.D. thesis, Institute
of Economics, University of Copenhagen. Extract.

P. Deheuvels
(1990) Daniel Dugué, *Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society A*, **153**,
99-100. *JSTOR*

M. H. DeGroot (1988) A
Conversation with George A. Barnard, *Statistical
Science*, **3**, 196-212. * JSTOR*

D. V.
Lindley (2003) Professor George A. Barnard (1915-2002), *The Statistician*,
**52**, 231-234.

M. H. DeGroot
(1987) A Conversation with C. R. Rao, *Statistical
Science*, **3**, 53-67. * JSTOR*

A. K. Bera
(2003) The ET Interview: Professor C. R. Rao, *Econometric Theory*, **19**,
331-400. __ET
Interview: C. R. Rao__.

For Bartlett see

I. Olkin (1989)
A Conversation with Maurice Bartlett, *Statistical
Science*, **4,** 151-163. *JSTOR*

J. Gani (ed) (1982) *The Making of Statisticians*, New York:
Springer-Verlag.

The
Gani volume also has an autobiography by D. J. Finney who was at Rothamsted in
the Yates era.

Darmois,
Irwin, Hotelling and Snedecor are in the *Statisticians of the Centuries* volume. The people mentioned in this
section appear among Fisher’s correspondents in Bennett (1990),
though some, like, Yates saw him so often they did not really need letters.

In biology Fisher’s most important collaborator was
E.
B. Ford (Papers in the Bodleian). Their
partnership began when Fisher was at Rothamsted and Ford was an undergraduate
at Oxford; their correspondence is available online.
When Ford published his *Ecological Genetics* soon after Fisher’s death,
he looked back on their partnership and dedicated the book to Fisher’s memory.
There is some relevant literature in the section on Sewall Wright. In
London and Cambridge
Fisher headed genetics departments. These were small departments and Fisher’s
influence on their members was strong. Amongst the staff and students in these
departments were C.
Bliss, J. H.
Bennett, W. Bodmer, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, A. W. F. Edwards, W.
D. (Bill) Hamilton, Mary
Lyon, K.
Mather, A. R. G. Owen, R.
R. Race, G. L. Taylor…. There is not as much bio- and autobiographical
material as in Statistics but see the following memoirs:

E. B. Ford (2005)
R. A. Fisher: An Appreciation, *Genetics*, **171**, 415-417. Genetics. (See
also Box
(2005))

B. Clarke (1995) Edmund Brisco
Ford, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of
the Royal Society*, **41**, 147-168.

Joe Cain (2001)* *Ford, Edmund Brisco,* Encyclopedia
of Life Sciences *available to
subscribing institutions at http://www.els.net/

D. Lewis (1992) Sir Kenneth
Mather, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows
of the Royal Society*, **38**,
249-266.

C. Clarke (1985) Robert Russell
Race, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of
the Royal Society*, **31**, 445-492.

J. Cullen (1995) Sir George
Taylor, *Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of
the Royal Society*, **41**, 459-469.

Witness Seminar (Oral History); The Rhesus Factor and Disease Prevention (2003).

See the Bill Hamilton
website for evidence of Fisher’s influence on him. See also A. Grafen (2004)
Willam Donald Hamilton,. *Biographical
Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*, **50**, 109-132. here

_____________________________________________________

Papers on Statistics** **see also Pearson Student Neyman Jeffreys Fisher
lectures

Apart
from the Mahalanobis 1938 biography and the 1951 anniversary pieces for the
publication of the *Statistical Methods
for Research Workers*, all the articles date from after Fisher’s death. A
few are modern treatments of Fisher topics. The links are mostly to *JSTOR.* Usually the papers’ titles are
self-explanatory but it may help to know that Bennett (1991) about smoking and
Senn (1994) about randomisation.

Aldrich, J.
(1997) R. A. Fisher and the Making of Maximum Likelihood 1912-22, *Statistical Science*, **12**, 162-176. *JSTOR*

Aldrich, J.
(2000) Fisher’s “Inverse Probability” of 1930, I*nternational Statistical Review*, **68**, 155-172. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2003) The Language of the English Biometric School, *International
Statistical Review*, **71**, 109-131. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2005) Fisher and Regression, *Statistical
Science*, **20**, 401-417. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2007) Information
and Economics in Fisher’s Design of Experiments, *International Statistical Review*, **75**, 131-149.
pdf

Aldrich, J. (2008)
R. A. Fisher on Bayes and Bayes’ Theorem, *Bayesian
Analysis*, **3**, 161-170. here

Aldrich,
J. (2008) Keynes
among the Statisticians, *History of
Political Economy*, **40**,
265-316. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2009) Burnside’s Engagement with the “Modern Theory of Statistics”. *Archive
for History of Exact Sciences*, **63**
(1), 51-79. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2009) England
and Continental Probability in the Inter-War Years *Journal
Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique* December, pp. 24.

Aldrich,
J. (2010) The Econometricians’ Statisticians 1895-1945. *History of Political Economy*, **42**, (1), 111-154. pdf

Aldrich,
J. (2010) Tales of Two Societies: London and Paris
1860-1940 *Journal
Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique* December,
pp.41.

Armate, M. (1988) La construction des
notions d'estimation et de vraisemblance chez Ronald A. Fisher, *Journal de la Société statistique de Paris*,
**129**, (1-2), 69-96.

Armitage, Peter (2003) **Fisher, Bradford Hill, and Randomization, ***International Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**,
925-928.

Barnard, G.
A. (1987) R. A. Fisher—A True Bayesian? *International
Statistical Review*, **55**, 183-189.

Barnard, G.
A. (1990) Fisher: a Retrospective (with discussion), *Chance*, **3**, 22-32.

Barnard, G. A. (1995) Pivotal
Models and the Fiducial Argument, *International
Statistical Review*, **63**, 309-323.** **

Barnard,
G. A. & D. A. Sprott** **(1983) The
Generalised Problem of the Nile: Robust Confidence Sets for Parametric
Functions, *Annals of Statistics*, **11**, 104-113. *JSTOR*

Basu, D. (1980) Randomization Analysis of Experimental Data: The Fisher
Randomization Test, (with discussion by D. V. Hinkley, O. Kempthorne, D. A.
Lane, D. V. Lindley and D. B. Rubin)** ***Journal of the American
Statistical Association*, **75**, 575-595. *JSTOR*

Bennett,
J. H. (1991) R. A. Fisher and the Role of a Statistical Consultant, *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Series A*, **154**, 443-445. *JSTOR*

Bingham, C. (1980) Distribution on
the Sphere, pp. 171-181 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Bliss, C. I. (1964) R. A. Fisher’s
Contribution to Medicine and Bioassay, *Biometrics*,
**20**, 273-285. *JSTOR*

Bodmer, Walter (2003) **RA Fisher, statistician and geneticist
extraordinary: a personal view, ***International Journal of
Epidemiology*, **32**, 938-942.

Box, J. F. (1980) Fisher: the Early
Years, pp. 35-45 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Box, J. F. (1980) R. A. Fisher and
the Design of Experiments, 1922-26, American Statistician, **34**, 1-7. *JSTOR*

Box, J. F. (2005) A
Reminiscence of R. A. Fisher, *American
Statistician*, **59**, 312-314. (See also Ford (2005))

Buehler, R. (1980) Fiducial Inference,
pp. 109-118 of Fienberg &
Hinkley.

Chalmers,
Iain (2003) **Fisher and Bradford Hill:
theory and pragmatism?*** International Journal of Epidemiology*,
**32**, 922-924.

Clarke, C. (1991)
**Invited Commentary on R. A. Fisher, ***American
Journal of Epidemiology*, **134**, 1371-1374.

Cochran, W. G. (1980) Fisher and
the Analysis of Variance, pp. 17-34 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Cook, R. D. (1980) Smoking and Lung
Cancer, pp. 182-191 of Fienberg
& Hinkley.

Conniffe, D. (1992) Keynes on
Probability and Statistical Inference and the Links to Fisher, *Cambridge Journal of Economics*, **16**, 475-489.

Cornish, E. A. (1964) Fisher’s
Activities in Australia 1958-62, *Biometrics*,
**20**, 372-373. *JSTOR*

Cox, N. J. (2008) Speaking Stata:
Correlation with confidence, or Fisher's *z*
revisited, *Stata Journal*, **8**, 413-439.

Das Gupta,
S. (1980) Distribution of the Correlation Coefficient, pp. 9-16 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Das Gupta, S. (1980) Discriminant
Analysis, pp. 9-16 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Dawid, A. P. (1991) Fisherian
Inference in Likelihood and Prequential Frames of Reference (with discussion), *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,
Series B*, **53**,79-109. *JSTOR*

Denis,
D. J. (2004) The Modern Testing Hybrid: R. A. Fisher's Fading Influence, with
dicussion by Amatte, Bru, Gill, Kwan,
Friendly, Lecoutre, Poitevineau, Lecoutre, Stigler and reply from Denis, *Journal de la Société de Francaise de
Statistique*, **145**, 5-68.

Doll, Richard (2003) **Fisher and Bradford Hill: their personal impact, ***International
Journal of Epidemiology*, **32**, 929-931.

Edwards, A.
W. F. (1978) R. A. Fisher’s Work on Statistical Inference. In *I
fondamenti dell’inferenza statistica*. Firenze: Parente, 117-124. Reprinted
in A. W. F.* *Edwards (1992)* Likelihood*. Expanded edition.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1993) Galton,
Karl Pearson and modern statistical theory. In *Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. - The Legacy of his Ideas*, ed. M. Keynes,
91-107. London: Macmillan.

Edwards,
A.W.F. (1993) John Venn and R. A. Fisher. *The Caian*, November 1993, 64-66.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1996) The Early
History of the Statistical Estimation of Linkage, *Annals of Human Genetics*,
**60**, 237-249.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1997) Three Early
Papers on Efficient Parametric Estimation. *Statistical
Science* **12**, 35-47. *JSTOR*

Edwards, A. W. F. (1997) What Did
Fisher Mean by `Inverse Probability’ in 1912-22?, *Statistical Science*, **12**,
177-184. *JSTOR*

Edwards,
A. W. F (2005) “R. A. Fisher, Statistical Methods for Research Workers, 1925”
in I. Grattan-Guinness (ed) *Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics : Case
Studies, 1640-1940*, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Efron, B. & D. V. Hinkley (1978) Assessing the
Accuracy of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator: Observed Versus Expected Fisher
Information, *Biometrika*, **65**, 457-482.

Fienberg, S.E. (1980) Fisher's Contributions to the Analysis of Categorical Data, pp. 75-84 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Fienberg, S.E. (1997) Introduction to R. A. Fisher on
Inverse Probability and Likelihood. *Statistical
Science* **12**, 161. *JSTOR*

Finney, D. J. (1964) Sir Ronald
Fisher’s Contribution to Biometric Statistics, *Biometrics*, **20**, 322-329.
*JSTOR*

Geisser, S.
(1980) Basic Theory of the 1922 Mathematical Statistics Paper, pp. 59-66 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Gower, J.
C. (1990) Fisher’s Optimal Scores and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. *Biometrics*, **46**, 947-961. *JSTOR*

Hald, A
(1999) On the History of Maximum Likelihood in Relation to Inverse Probability
and Least Squares, *Statistical Science*,
**14**, 214-222.

Hall, N. S. (2007) R. A. Fisher and his Advocacy of
Randomization, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **40**, 295-325.

Hall, N. S. (2010) Ronald Fisher and Gertrude Cox: Two
Statistical Pioneers Sometimes Cooperate and Sometimes Collide, *American Statistician*, **14**, 212-220.

Hampel, F. (2006), The Proper Fiducial
Argument, *General Theory of Information Transfer and Combinatorics*,
512-527.

Hand,
D. J. (2105) From evidence to understanding: a commentary on Fisher (1922) ‘On the
mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics’, *Philosophical Trans-actions of the Royal Society A*, **373**,

Healy, M. J. R.
(2003) R. A. Fisher the Statistician, *Statistician* (*Journal of the
Royal Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3), 303-310.

Hinkley, D. V. (1980) Theory of
Statistical Estimation: the 1925 Paper, pp. 85-94 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Hinkley, D. V. (1980) Fisher’s
Development of Conditional Inference, pp. 101-108 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Holschuh, N. (1980) Randomization
and Design: I, pp. 35-45 of Fienberg
& Hinkley.

Hotelling,
H. (1951) The Impact of R. A. Fisher on
Statistics, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46, **35-46.
*JSTOR*

Johnstone,
D. J. (1987) Tests of Significance Following R. A. Fisher, *British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*, **38**, 481-499. *JSTOR*

Jones, D. A.
(2010) In Defense of Fisher, *American
Scientist*, **98**, (1), 3.

Lehmann** **E. L. (1990) Model Specification: The
Views of Fisher and Neyman, and Later Developments, *Statistical Science*, **5**,
pp. 160-168. *JSTOR*

**Lenhard, J. (2006) Models and Statistical Inference:
The Controversy between Fisher and Neyman-Pearson, ***British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science*, Advance Access published on
January 3, 2006.

Li, C. C. (1968) Fisher, Wright and
Path Coefficients, *Biometrics*, **24**, 471-483. *JSTOR.*

Louçã, F. (2009) Emancipation through
Interaction—How Eugenics and Statistics converged and diverged, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **42**, (4), 649-684.

Ludbrook, J. (2005) R. A. Fisher's
Life and Death in Australia, 1959–1962, *American Statistician*, **59**, 164-165.

Mahalanobis, P. C. (1938) Professor
Ronald Aylmer Fisher, *Sankhya*, **4**, 265-272.

Marks, Harry M
(2003) **Rigorous uncertainty: why RA
Fisher is important,** *International Journal of Epidemiology*,
**32**, 932-937.

Mather, K. (1951) R. A. Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*:
An Appreciation, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46, **51-54.
*JSTOR
*

Parolini, G. (2015) The Emergence
of Modern Statistics in Agricultural Science: Analysis of Variance,
Experimental Design and the Reshaping of Research at Rothamsted Experimental
Station, 1919-1933, *Journal of the
History of Biology*, **4**8, 301-335.

Pearce,
S. C. (1979) Experimental Design: R.A.
Fisher and Some Modern Rivals, Statistician, **28**, 153-161. *JSTOR*

Perdersen, J. G. (1978) Fiducial
Inference, *International Statistical
Review*, **46**, 147-170.

Picard, R. (1980) Randomization and
Design: II, pp. 46-58 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Pratt, J. W. (1976) F. Y. Edgeworth
and R. A. Fisher on the Efficiency of Maximum Likelihood Estimation, *Annals of Statistics*, **4**, 501-514. *JSTOR*

Preece, D.A. (1990) R.
A. Fisher and Experimental Design: A Review. *Biometrics* **46**, 925-935. *JSTOR*

Rao, C. R.
(1964) Ronald Aylmer Fisher—the Architect of Multivariate Analysis, *Biometrics*, **20**, 286-300. *JSTOR*

Rao, C. R. (1992) R. A. Fisher: The
Founder of Modern Statistics, *Statistical
Science*, **7**, 34-48. *JSTOR*

Runger, G. (1980) Some Numerical
Illustrations of Fisher’s Theory of Statistical Estimation, pp. 95-100 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Seal, H. (1967) The Historical Development of the Gauss
Linear Model, *Biometrika*, **54**, 1-24. *JSTOR*

Seidenfeld, T. (1992) R. A.
Fisher’s Fiducial Argument and Bayes’ Theorem, *Statistical Science*, **7**,
358-368. *JSTOR*

Seidenfeld, T. (1992) R. A. Fisher on the Design of Experiments and Statistical Estimation. In Sarkar (1992), 23-36.

Senn, S. (1994) Fisher’s
Game with the Devil, *Statistics in
Medicine* **13**, 217-230.

Senn, S. (2006) An
Early “Atkins’ Diet”: R. A. Fisher Analyses a Medical “Experiment”. *Biometrical
Journal*, **48**,
193-204.

Speed, T. P. (1987) What is an
Analysis of Variance? (with discussion), *Annals
of Statistics*, **15**, 885-941. *JSTOR*

Stigler, S. M. (1973). Laplace,
Fisher and the Discovery of the Concept of Sufficiency, *Biometrika,* **60** 39-445. *JSTOR*

Stigler, S.M. (1999) The
Foundations of Statistics at Stanford, *American
Statistician* **53**, 263–266.

Stigler S. M.
(2001) Ancillary History, in M. C. M. de Gunst, C. A. J. Klaassen, A. W. van
der Vaart, (eds.), *State of the Art in
Probability and Statistics; Festschrift for Willem R. van Zwet*, Institute
of Mathematical Statistics, Lecture Notes—Monograph Series.

Stigler
S. M. (2005) Fisher in 1921, *Statistical Science*,
**20**, 32-49. Project
Euclid

Stigler, S. M. (2006) How Ronald Fisher became
a mathematical statistician, *Mathématiques et sciences humaines,* *n° 176, Winter 2006, special
issue: Contribution to the history of probabilities. Tribute issue to Bernard
Bru.*

Stigler, S. M. (2007) The Epic Story of Maximum Likelihood, *Statistical Science*, **22**, (4), 598-620 Project Euclid

Stigler, S. M. (2007) The Pedigree of the International
Biometric Society, *Biometrics*, **63**, (2), 317-321.

Stigler, S. M. (2007) Karl Pearson’s
Theoretical Errors and the Advances They Inspired, *Statistical Science*, **23**,
(2), 261-271.

Stigler, S. M. (2008) Fisher and the
5% Level, *Chance*, **21**, (4), 12.

Stolley, P. D. (1991) **When Genius Errs: R.A. Fisher and the Lung Cancer Controversy, ***American
Journal of Epidemiology*, **133**, 416-425.

Street, D.
J. (1990)* *Fisher’s
Contributions to Agricultural Statistics.*
Biometrics*, **46**, 937-945. *JSTOR*

Thompson, E.
A. (1990) R. A. Fisher’s Contributions to Genetical Statistics.* Biometrics*, **46**, 905-914. *JSTOR*

Wallace, D.
L. (1980) The Behrens-Fisher and Fieller-Creasy
Problems, pp. 119-147 of Fienberg & Hinkley.

Welsh, A. H. and J.
Robinson (2005) Fisher and Inference for Scores, *International Statistical Review*, **73**, 131-150.

Wynder, E. L.
(1991) Re: “**When Genius Errs: R.A.
Fisher and the Lung Cancer Controversy,” ***American Journal of
Epidemiology*, **134**, 1467-1469.

Yates, F.
(1951) The Influence of *Statistical
Methods for Research Workers* on the Development of the Science of
Statistics, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***46,**
19-34. *JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1964) Sir Ronald Fisher
and the Design of Experiments, *Biometrics*,
**20**, 307-321. *JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1964) Fiducial
Probability, Recognisable Sub-sets and Behrens’ Test, *Biometrics*, **20**, 343-360.
*JSTOR*

Yates, F. (1975) The Early History
of Experimental Design, pp. 581-595 of J. Srivastava (ed) *A Survey of Statistical Design and Linear Models*, Amsterdam:
North-Holland.

Youden, W. J. (1951) The Fisherian
Revolution in Methods of Experimentation, *Journal
of the American Statistical Association, ***46***,* 47-50. *JSTOR*

Zabell, S.
(1989) R. A. Fisher on the History of Inverse Probability (with discussion), *Statistical Science*, **4**, 247-63. *JSTOR*

Zabell, S. (1992) R. A. Fisher and
the Fiducial Argument, *Statistical
Science*, **7**, 369-387. *JSTOR*

Papers on Genetics, Eugenics and Evolutionary Biology** **see also Pearson Wright Fisher lectures ** **

Ao, P. (2005) Laws of Darwinian
Evolutionary Theory, *Physics of Life
Reviews*, **2**, 117-156.

Band, H. T.
(2000) Sir Ronald Fisher and Natural Selection,** **, *Trends in Ecology &
Evolution*, **15**, 161-162.* *

Bartley, M. M. (1994) Conflicts in Human
Progress: Sexual Selection and the Fisherian “Runaway,” *British Journal for the History of Science*, **27**, 177-196.

Bodmer, W. F. (1992) Early British
Discoveries in Human Genetics: Contributions of R.A. Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane
to the Development of Blood Groups, *American Journal of Human Genetics*, **50**, 671–676.

Cain, A.J. (1988) A Criticism of J. R. G.
Turner’s Article “Fisher's Evolutionary Faith and the challenge of Mimicry”. *Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **5**, (ed. P. H. Harvey & L. Partridge),
246-248. Oxford University Press.

Crow, J.F. (1990)
R. A. Fisher, a Centennial View. *Genetics*,
**124**, 207-211. Free
text.

Crow, J.F. (2002)
Here’s to Fisher, Additive Genetic Variance, and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection. *Evolution*, **56**, 1313-1316. *JSTOR*

Edwards, A.
W. F. (1990) Fisher, *W*, and
the Fundamental Theorem. *Theoretical
Population Biology*, **38**, 276-284.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1990)
R. A. Fisher: Twice Professor of Genetics: London and Cambridge. *Biometrics*, **46**, 897-904. *JSTOR* Revised version in *Statistician*
(*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3),
311-318.

Edwards, A.W.F. (1994) The
Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. *Biological
Reviews* **69**, 443-474.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1996) W. D. Hamilton’s Darwinian
Predecessors, *TLS* 6^{th}
December, reprinted in* Galton Institute
Newsletter*, (June, 1997) here.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1998) The Eugenics Society and the
Development of Biometry. The 1997 Galton Lecture, London, 19th September. *Essays in the History of Eugenics*, ed.
R. A. Peel, 156-172. London: The Galton Institute.

Edwards, A. W. F. (1998) Natural Selection and the Sex
Ratio: Fisher’s Sources, *American
Naturalist* **151**, 564-569.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2000) *The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection*.
In Perspectives, ed. J. F. Crow and W. F. Dove. *Genetics* **154**, 1419–1426.* Genetics Online*

Edwards, A. W. F. (2000)
Fisher Information and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. *Rendiconti (B) Istituto Lombardo di Scienze
e Lettere*, Milano.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2000)
Carl Düsing (1884) on the Regulation of the Sex-ratio, *Theoretical Population Biology*, **58**, 255-257.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2001)
Darwin and Mendel United: the Contributions of Fisher, Haldane and Wright up to
1932. In *Encyclopedia of Genetics*,
ed. E. C. R. Reeve, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 77-83.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2005) Linkage Methods in Human Genetics before the Computer, *Human Genetics*, **118**, 515-30.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2006) Fisher,
Demetrius and Wright: contending models, *BioEssays ***28**, 440.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2007) R. A. Fisher's 1943 Unravelling of the Rhesus
Blood-Group System, *Genetics* **175**, 471–476.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2011) Mathematizing Darwin, *Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology ***65**,
421–430.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2017)
Haldane and Fisher—Scientific Interactions, *Journal
of Genetics*, **96**, (5), 747–752.

Esposito, M. (2011) Utopianism in the British
Evolutionary Synthesis, *Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and
Biomedical Sciences*, **42**, 40-49.

Frank, S.
A. and Slatkin, M. (1992) Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of
Natural Selection. *Trends in Ecology and
Evolution* **7**, 92-95.

Gould, S.
J. (1996) The Smoking Gun of Eugenics. In S. J. Gould (ed.) *Dinosaur
in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History* (pp. 296-308). London: Cape.

Grafen, A.
(2003) Fisher the Evolutionary Biologist, *Statistician* (*Journal of
the Royal Statistical Society, Series D*), **52** (3), 319-330.

Karlin, S. (1992) R.
A. Fisher and Evolutionary Theory, *Statistical
Science*, **7**, 13-33. *JSTOR*

Kempthorne, O.
(1974) A Review of *Collected Papers of R.
A. Fisher* ed. J. H. Bennett, *Social
Biology*, **21**, 98-101.

Leigh, E.
G. jr. (1986) Ronald Fisher and the Development of Evolutionary Theory. I.
The Role of Selection.* Oxford Surveys in
Evolutionary Biology*, **3**, (ed. R.
Dawkins & M. Ridley), 187-223. Oxford University Press.

Leigh, E. G. jr. (1987)
Ronald Fisher and the Development of Evolutionary Theory. II. Influences of New
Variation on Evolutionary process.* Oxford
Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **4**,
(ed. P. H. Harvey & L. Partridge), 212-263. Oxford University Press.

Leigh, E. G. (1999) The Modern** **Synthesis, Ronald Fisher and
Creationism, *Trends in Ecology &
Evolution*, **14**, 495-498.

Mayo, O. (1990) R.
A. Fisher’s Contribution to Evolutionary Theory. *Evolución Biológica*, **4**,
1-21.

Mooney, S. M.
(1995) H. J. Muller and R. A. Fisher on
the Evolutionary Significance of Sex, *Journal of the History of Biology*,* ***28**,* *133-149.

Moore, J.
(2007) R. A. Fisher: A Faith Fit for Eugenics, *Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History
and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences,* **38** (1), 110-135.

Moran, P.
A. P. and Smith, C. A. B. (1966) Commentary on R. A. Fisher’s
Paper 'The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian
Inheritance’. *Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs
XLI*, *Galton Laboratory, University
College London*.

Morrison, M.
(2002) **Modeling
Populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and Biometry, ***British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science*, **53**, 39-68.

Morrison, M.
(2006) **Unification,
Explanation and Explaining Unity: The Fisher-Wright Controversy, ***British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*,
**57 **(1), 233-245.

Norton, B.J. (1975)
Metaphysics and Population Genetics: Karl Pearson and the background to
Fisher’s multi-factorial theory of inheritance. *Annals of Science*, **32**,
537-553.

Norton, B.J.
(1978) Fisher and the Neo-Darwinian Synthesis. E. G. Forbes (ed.), *Human Implications of Scientific Advance.
Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of the History of Science*. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp.
481–494.

Norton, B.J. (1981) *La Situation Intellectuelle au Moment des Débuts de Fisher en Génétique
des Populations*. *Revue de Synthèse
IIIe serie*, **103-104**, 230-250.
(and others in this special number *R.A.Fisher
et l'histoire de la génétique des populations*).

Norton, B. (1983)
Fisher’s Entrance into Evolutionary Science: the Role of Eugenics. *Dimensions of Darwinism. Themes and
Counterthemes in Twentieth Century Evolutionary Theory* (ed. M. Grene),
19-29. Cambridge University Press.

Novitski, E.
(2004) On Fisher's Criticism of Mendel's Results With the Garden Pea, *Genetics*,
**166**, 1133-1136

O’Donald, P. (1990)
Fisher’s Contributions to the Theory of Sexual Selection as the Basis of Recent
Research. *Theoretical Population Biology*,
**38**, 285-300.

S. Okasha
(2008) Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection—A Philosophical
Analysis, *British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science*, **59 **(3),
319 - 351.

Piegorsch, W.
W. (1990) Fisher’s Contributions to Genetics and Heredity,
with Special Emphasis on the Gregor Mendel Controversy. *Biometrics* **46**, 915-924. *JSTOR*

Pilpel, A.
(2007) Statistics is not Enough: Revisiting Ronald A. Fisher’s Critique (1936)
of Mendel’s Experimental Results (1866) *Studies
in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy
of Biological and Biomedical Sciences*, **38**,
618-626.

Plutynski, A.
(2005) **Explanatory
Unification and the Early Synthesis, ***British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*, **56**, 595-609.

Plutynski, A.
(2006) What was Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection and What was
It for? *Studies in History and Philosophy
of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and
Biomedical Sciences*, **37**, 59-82.

Provine, W.
B. (1978) The Role of Mathematical Population Geneticists in the
Evolutionary Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. *Studies in the History of Biology* **2**, 167-192.

Provine, W.
B. (1990) Population Genetics (reprint of papers by Fisher, Haldane, and
Wright, with an introduction). *Bulletin
of Mathematical Biology*, **52**,
201-318 (Special issue *Classics of
Theoretical Biology*, Part I).

Race, R. R.
(1964) Some Notes on Fisher’s Contributions to Human Blood Groups, *Biometrics*, **20**, 361-367. *JSTOR*

Race, R. R. and R. Sanger (1982)
Fisher’s Contribution to Rh, *Vox
Sanguinis*, 43, 354-356.

Sarkar, S.
(2004) Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the “Synthesis”, *Philosophy
of Science*, **71**, 1215–1226.

Tabery, J.
(2004) The “Evolutionary Synthesis” of George Udny Yule, *Journal of the
History of Biology*, **37**(1), 73-101.

Tabery, J.
(2008) R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the Origin(s) of Genotype–Environment
Interaction, *Journal of the History of Biology*, **41**, 717–761.

Tabery, J. and
S. Sarkar (2015) R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the `Competition' for the
Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics in 1930: Correcting
the Legend, *Notes and Records of the
Royal Society of London*, **69**,
437-446.

Turner, J.R.G. (1985)
Fisher’s Evolutionary Faith and the Challenge of Mimicry. *Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology*, **2**, (ed. R. Dawkins & M. Ridley), 159-96. Oxford University
Press.

Turner, J.R.G. (1987)
Random Genetic Drift, R. A. Fisher, and the Oxford School of Ecological
Genetics. *The Probabilistic Revolution.
Vol. 2: Ideas in the Sciences* (eds. G. Gigerenzer, L. Krüger & M.
Morgan). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 313-354.

Turner, J.R.G. (1988)
Reply: Men of Fisher’s? *Oxford Surveys in
Evolutionary Biology*, **5**, (ed.
P.H. Harvey & L. Partridge), 249-252. Oxford University Press.

Watt, D. C.
(2000) C P Blacker, R A Fisher and L Penrose on Eugenic Fundamentals, *Galton Institute Newsletter*, Parts I
and II.

Welling, F. (1986) What about R. A.
Fisher’s Statement of the “too good” Data of J. G. Mendel’s Pisum Paper? *Journal
of Heredity*, **77**, 281-283.

Williams, C. B. (1964) Some
Experiences of a Biologist with R. A. Fisher and Statistics, *Biometrics*, **20**, 301-06. *JSTOR*

Wooding, S. (2006)
Phenylthiocarbamide: A 75-Year Adventure in Genetics and Natural Selection, *Genetics*, **172**, 2015-2023. *Genetics Online*

These
books, in one way or another, take Fisher as their starting point. They
illustrate how Fisher continued to influence developments even after his long
life had ended. Although the books present the authors’ own ideas, they often
have interesting things to say about Fisher’s ideas.

T. Seidenfeld,
(1979) *Philosophical Problems of
Statistical Inference: Learning from R. A. Fisher*, Dordrecht: Reidel.

A
philosopher attempts to develop Fisher’s ideas on fiducial probability.

A. W.F. Edwards
(1972/1992) *Likelihood* (Expanded
Edition, with a new preface), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

An
attempt to develop Fisher’s ideas on likelihood.

I. Hacking (1965) *Logic
of Statistical Inference, Cambridge*, Cambridge
University Press.

A
philosopher attempts to reconstruct the foundations of Statistics, taking issue
with some of Fisher’s ideas, while developing others.

B. R. Frieden (1998) *Physics
from Fisher Information: A Unification*, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

This book attempts to develop physical theory on the basis of Fisher information.

D. A. S.
Fraser (1968) *The** Structure of Inference*, New York: Wiley.

An early instalment of a continuing project of reconstructing fiducial inference.

O. E. Barndorff-Nielsen. & D. R. Cox (1994) *Inference and Asymptotics*, London:
Chapman & Hall.

A continuing project to develop
the conditional inference first proposed by Fisher in his 1934 Two New Properties of Mathematical Likelihood.** **

R. Royall (1997) *Statistical
Evidence: A Likelihood Paradigm*. London: Chapman & Hall.** **

J. K. Ghosh (ed) (1988) *Statistical Information and Likelihood: A Collection of Critical Essays
by Dr. D. Basu*, New York: Springer-Verlag.

Basu’s critical essays on Fisherian themes: ancillarity, likelihood, randomisation.

There
are Fisher memorial lecture series in the UK, USA and Australia. (See here for information
about the British series and here for
information about the US series, including lists of the lectures by year.) The *published*
lectures are listed below; sometimes the title does not match that of the
original lecture. The invitation to give the lecture is a recognition of the *lecturer’s* contribution and the lecture
is most often a tour d’horizon of the lecturer’s specialism. There may be some
remarks on how the specialism is rooted in Fisher’s work. Some
lectures have much more to say **about**
Fisher, his statistics, his genetics or both—they are marked* fff*.
The links are all to

Anderson,
T. W. (1996) R. A. Fisher and Multivariate Analysis, Statistical Science, **11**, 20-34. *JSTOR*

Anscombe, F. J. (1982)
How Much to Look at the Data, *Utilitas Mathematica*, **21A**, 23-28.

* fff *Bartlett,
M. S. (1965) R. A. Fisher and the First Fifty Years of Statistical Methodology,

Berger, J. (2003) Could
Fisher, Jeffreys and Neyman Have Agreed Upon Testing? *Statistical Science,*
**18,** 1-32 (2003). *Euclid*.

*fff** *Bodmer, W.F. (1990)
Genetic Sequences, *Proceedings of the
Royal Society* *B*, **241**, 85-92. *JSTOR*

*fff** *Box, G. E.
P. (1976) Science and Statistics, *Journal** of the American Statistical Association*, **71**, 791-799. *JSTOR*

Box, G. E. P. (1989) Quality
Improvement: an Expanding Domain for the Application of Scientific Method. *Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society A*, **327**,
617–630. *JSTOR*

Breslow, N.E. (1996) Statistics
in Epidemiology: the Case-control Study. *In
Advances in Biometry*, ed. Armitage, P. and David, H. A., New York: Wiley,
287–318.

Brillinger, D. R. (1992)
Nerve Cell Spike Train Data Analysis: A Progression of Technique, *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **87**, 260-271. *JSTOR*

Chernoff, H. (1980) The Identification of an Element of a Large Population in the Presence of
Noise, **8**, 1179-1197. *JSTOR*

Cochran, W. G. (1973)
Experiments for Nonlinear Functions” *Journal
of the American Statistical Association*, **68**, 771-781. *JSTOR*

Cook, R. D. (2007)
Dimension Reduction in Regression, (with discussion), *Statistical Science*, **22**,
1-43. *Euclid*

Cox, D. R. (1984) Present
Position and Potential Developments: Some Personal Views. Design of Experiments
and Regression. *Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society* A **147**,
306–315. *JSTOR*

Daniel, C. (1973) One-at-a-time
Plans, *Journal of the American
Statistical Association, ***68**,
353-360. *JSTOR** *

Dempster, A.
P. (1998) Logicist Statistics. 1. Models and Modeling. *Statistical Science,* **13**, 248–276.

* fff *Doll, R. (2002) Proof
of Causality: Deduction from Epidemiological Observation,

* fff *Edwards,
A. W. F. (1995) Fiducial Inference and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural
Selection. XVIIIth Fisher Memorial Lecture,

* fff *Edwards, A.
W. F. (1993) Mendel, Galton, Fisher.

Efron, B.
(1998) R. A. Fisher in the 21st Century, *Statistical
Science *(with discussion)*, ***13, **95-122. *Euclid*.

Fienberg, S.
E. (1981) Recent Advances in Theory and Methods for the Analysis of
Categorical Data: Making the Link to Statistical Practice. *Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute* **49**(2), 763-791.

Finney, D.J. (1979) Bioassay
and the Practice of Statistical Inference. *International
Statistical Review *

Fraser,** **D. A. S** ( **1991) Statistical Inference: Likelihood to Significance. *Journal of the American Statistical
Association*, **86**, 258-265. *JSTOR*

Goodman, L.A. (1968) The Analysis of
Cross-classified Data: Independence, Quasi-independence, and Interactions in
Contingency Tables with or without Missing Entries. *Journal of the American Statistical Association* **63**, 1091–1131. *JSTOR*

Healy,
M.J.R. (1995) Frank Yates, 1902–1994 – The Work of a Statistician. *International Statistical Review* **63**, 271–288.

Kalbfleisch, J.
D. (2000) The Estimating Function Bootstrap, *Canadian Journal of Statistics,*
**30**, 449-499.

Karlin, S.
and Matessi, C. (1983) Kin Selection and Altruism. *Proceedings of the Royal Society* B, **219**, 327–353. *JSTOR*

* fff *Kempthorne, O. (1966) Some Aspects of Experimental Inference,

Mallows, C. (1998) The
Zeroth problem. *The American Statistician*
**52**, 1-9.

**ff****f*** *Mayo, O. (2004) To What Extent has Fisher’s
Research Program been Fulfilled in Australia, *Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics*, **46**(4), 517-529.

Mosteller, F.
(1989) Methods for Studying Coincidences (with P. Diaconis) *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **84**, 853-861. *JSTOR*

**ff***f** *Rubin, D. B. (2005) Causal Inference
Using Potential Outcomes: Design, Modeling, Decisions, *Journal of the
American Statistical Association*, **100**, 322-331.

**ff***f** * Savage, L. J.
(1976) On Rereading R. A. Fisher, (with discussion) *Annals of Statistics*, **4**,
441-500. *JSTOR*

**ff**** f** Speed, T. (2006) Recombination and Linkage,
Presentation pdf
(16MB)

Thompson, E.
A. (1996) Likelihood and Linkage: from Fisher to the Future. *Annals of Statistics ***24**, 449–465. *JSTOR*

Thompson, E.
A. (2007) 1953: An Unrecognised Summit in Human Genetic Linkage
Analysis, *Statistics Surveys, 1*.

Yates, F. (1966) Computers,
the Second Revolution in Statistics, *Biometrics*
**22**, 233–251. *JSTOR*

_____________________________________________________

Fisher

Chance, risk and health An Open University series of 4 podcasts on RA Fisher and his legacy

Fisher quotations compiled by A.W. F. Edwards

Fisher’s notes on the classification of the Rhesus blood groups

The syllabus for George Casella’s course (Statistical) Fisher in the 21st century

My other Fisher sites (referred to in this document)

Ronald
Fisher’s childhood home

Likelihood
and Probability in R. A. Fisher’s *Statistical Methods for Research Workers*

Student’s
review of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods*

E. S.
* *Pearson’s* *reviews* *of* *Fisher’s* Statistical
Methods*

Leon
Isserlis’s review of Fishers’ *Statistical Methods*

*Nature
review of Fisher’s Statistical Methods*

*BMJ
*review of Fisher’s *Statistical Methods*

General

Peter Lee’s History of Statistics has many interesting links.

For recent literature Recent Publications in the History of
Probability and Statistics at the *JEHPS*.

Peter Cameron’s Encyclopaedia of Design Theory treats a subject Fisher revolutionised.

Paul Handford’s Brief History of Population Genetics has a section on Fisher.

The *Current Index to Statistics* is useful for Fisher topics. There is
free access to its pre-1996
entries

MedHist the Wellcome Library’s gateway to internet resources for the history of medicine has sections on genetics and eugenics.

My __Figures from
the History of Probability and Statistics__ has a sketch of the history of
probability and statistics and notes on some of the key people.