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[The first thing Pearson could remember] was sitting in a high chair sucking his thumb. Someone told him to stop sucking it, and added that unless he did so, the thumb would wither away. He put his two thumbs together and looked at them for a long time. “They look alike to me,” he said to himself. “I can’t see that the thumb I suck is any smaller than the other. I wonder if she could be lying to me.” Here in this simple story we have rejection of constituted authority, faith in his own interpretation of the meaning of observed data, and finally, imputation of moral obliquity to a person whose judgement differed from his own. These characteristics were prominent throughout his entire career. Walker (1958 & -78)
Karl Pearson was born in
In 1884 Pearson became Professor of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College London (UCL). Mechanics and the theory of elasticity—and later biometry—eventually crowded out other pursuits. Pearson took on the task of completing Todhunter’s History of the Theory of Elasticity and Clifford’s Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. The Elasticity is a very detailed internal history of Pearson’s own specialism. The book by Clifford, the first holder of the UCL chair, explains the basic principles of mathematics in a non-technical way. Pearson not only edited what Clifford had written but contributed about a third of the final text Pearson’s ideas for the reform of mechanics were close to those of Mach and he developed them further in the Grammar of Science (1892). This presented the scientific method as “the orderly classification of facts followed by the recognition of their relationship and recurring sequences.” His achievements as an applied mathematician were recognised when he was elected to the Royal Society in 1896.
Between 1891 and -94 Pearson gave four series of lectures at Gresham College. The first series provided the basis for the Grammar. The later lectures treated statistics. Pearson had developed a new interest to which he would devote his greatest efforts. With W. F. R. Weldon, professor of zoology at UCL, he founded biometry. Weldon had come to the view that “the problem of animal evolution is essentially a statistical problem” and was applying Francis Galton’s (1822-1911) statistical methods, including correlation. Pearson joined in, developing new techniques and eventually a new theory of statistics. Over the next ten years Pearson made his most important contributions to statistics, including the method of moments, the Pearson system of curves, correlation and the chi-squared test. Pearson realised that the methods he had devised for biometry had other uses and he and his collaborators applied them to all manner of subjects. The most important of the early collaborators was G. Udny Yule, whose applied interests were in social policy and medicine. By the end of the nineteenth century there was an embryonic mathematical statistics community extending to non-biometricians such as F. Y. Edgeworth and W. F. Sheppard.
Pearson, Weldon and Galton founded Biometrika, a “Journal for the Statistical Study of
Biological Problems”. The mission was controversial. Following the
“rediscovery” of Mendel, William Bateson
(1861-1926) argued that the statistical study was pointless while Pearson
thought Mendel’s account covered only a few special cases. In 1903 Pearson
established the Biometric Laboratory. This drew visitors from all over,
including W. S.
Gosset (‘Student’) from Guinness in
In 1911 a
bequest from Galton led to the establishing of a chair of Eugenics and a Department of Applied Statistics at
Sources E. S. Pearson’s biography is the major source. It is thorough and fair-minded, though inevitably dated. For the early Pearson it has now been surpassed by Porter (2004). This new biography focuses on the making of the statistician and does not try to cover in the same detail what Pearson did when his career was under way.
The sketch over the menu is from Peter Lee’s portraits of statisticians
KP 1882 1890 & 1910 from E. S. Pearson’s Biometrika biography
Weldon from KP’s Biometrika memoir
KP with Galton from the Galton website http://www.mugu.com/galton/:
Bateson from the Bateson website http://post.queensu.ca/~forsdyke/bateson1.htm
Fisher from J. H. Bennett (1971) Collected
Papers of R. A. Fisher volume 1,
The UCL Special Collections digital archive has some nice family photographs. Maria and baby Egon can be seen on Science, Technology and Engineering, p. 5 and Karl and Maria with pram and with grown-up children on Science, Technology and Engineering, p. 6.
There is a wealth of photographs of places associated with the Pearson family on John Bibby’s From Crambe to chi-squared.
There are photographs of the Pearson family home at Karl Pearson’s Hampstead home.
There are more brief lives at
This archive is excellent for finding out quickly who was who in Mathematics. There are several links to it in this guide.
The Department of Statistical Science at UCL descends from Pearson’s Department of Applied Statistics.
R. H. Williams, Zumbo, B. D., Ross, D., & Zimmerman, D.W. (2003) Human Nature Review, 3: 296-301.
Encyclopedia articles not only introduce Pearson but lead on to related people and topics—to W. K. Clifford, F. Galton, W. F. R. Weldon, W. Bateson, ‘Student’ (W. S. Gosset), R. A. Fisher, F. Y. Edgeworth, G. U. Yule, M. Greenwood, E. Mach, … to biometrics, chi-squared, correlation, eugenics, evolution, goodness of fit, method of moments, Pearson system, regression, …. .
M. E. Magnello (2008) Pearson, Karl, International Encyclopedia of the
M. E. Magnello (2005) Karl Pearson,
Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 3 2005, 31-39,
J. Woiak (2004) Pearson, Karl (1857-1936),
J. Aldrich (2001) Pearson, Karl
(1857-1936) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences,
M. E. Magnello (1999) Pearson, Karl, Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, available to subscribing institutions at http://www.els.net/
M. E. Magnello (1998a) Karl Pearson, Encyclopedia
of Statistical Science, (update), 653-656.
M. E. Magnello (1998b) Karl Pearson, Encyclopedia
of Biostatistics 4, 3308-3315.
N. David (1997) Karl Pearson, in N. L. Johnson & S. Kotz (eds) Leading
Personalities in Statistical Sciences from the Seventeenth Century to the
N. David (1985) Karl Pearson, Encyclopedia of Statistical Science, 6,
H. M. Walker (1978) Karl Pearson, International
Encyclopedia of Statistics, 2, 691-698.
C. P. Eisenhart (1974) Karl Pearson, Dictionary
of Scientific Biography, 10, 447-73.
P. Alexander (1967) Karl Pearson, Encyclopedia
of Philosophy, 6, 68-69.
These articles are brief and introductory except Eisenhart’s which is a small monograph. The Encyclopedia of Biostatistics has the fullest set of links. Pearson also figures in several of the articles in the
Encyclopedia to the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences,
Karl Pearson was a great teacher.
For fifty years he taught at
Some of Pearson’s students wrote about him after he died. Pearson generated strong reactions: “the man is a liar” wrote J. M. Keynes to W. Bateson in 1910 (Bateson Letters, John Innes Archives). On Pearson’s death in 1936 and his centenary in 1957 the survivors reflected on him and his work.
The Times obituary is available on the MacTutor Pearson page. Also available is an obituary for the Royal Society of Edinburgh by G. H. T. (presumably Godfrey Hilton Thomson (1881-1955) the statistical psychologist).
E. S. Pearson (1895-1980), Pearson’s son and his successor as head of the Department of Applied Statistics University College, London (UCL) and editor of Biometrika, wrote a full biography soon after his father’s death
This appeared as a book with the same title, published by Cambridge University Press, in 1938.
George Udny Yule (1871-1951) was a student and eventually an assistant professor in Pearson’s department. Later he went his own way he and Pearson came to disagree about association, time series correlation, …. The Royal Society obituary also has a contribution from L. N. G. Filon, Pearson’s student and eventually his successor in the Goldsmid chair in Applied Mathematics
G. Udny Yule & L. N. G. Filon (1936)
Karl Pearson, Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society of
Raymond Pearl (1879-1940)
attended Pearson’s lectures in 1905-6 and was once a co-editor of Biometrika.
(1995) for his fluctuating relations with Pearson. From 1919
Raymond Pearl (1936) Karl Pearson, 1857-1936, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 31, 653-664. JSTOR
Elderton (1877-1962) was a distinguished actuary. He first met Pearson in
1900 when he was training to be an actuary and was drawn into the
W. P. Elderton (1937) Professor
Karl Pearson, Journal of the
E. S. Pearson recalls Elderton’s relations with Pearson in the obituary, William Palin Elderton (1877-1962), Biometrika, 49, (1962), 297-303. JSTOR
R. A. Fisher (1890-1962), Pearson’s greatest successor and his bitterest critic, wrote an article for the Dictionary of National Biography but it was not accepted. Edwards published the article and tells the story in
A.W. F. Edwards (1994)
Pearson emerges without glory
from Fisher’s sketch of the history of statistics (available from the
Statistics from Scientific Thought in the Twentieth
Century, (ed. A. E. Heath), pp. 31-55.
An anonymous reviewer of Fisher’s Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1925) used a quotation from Macaulay to describe Fisher’s attitude to Pearson: “just so we have heard a baby, mounted on the shoulders of its father, cry out, ‘how much taller I am than Papa!’” The reviewer could well have been Major Greenwood
wrote the article that appeared in the DNB.
M. Greenwood (1949) Pearson, Karl, The
Dictionary of National Biography, 1931-40, ed. L. G. Wickham Legg, pp.
V. Farewell, T. Johnson & P. Armitage (2006) ‘A Memorandum on the Present Position and Prospects of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology’ by Major Greenwood, Statistics in Medicine, 25, 2167-2177.
J. B. S. Haldane (1892-1964), at UCL from 1933 first as
professor of genetics then of biometry, compared Pearson to
J. B. S. Haldane (1957) Karl Pearson, 1857-1957. A Centenary Lecture delivered at University College London, Biometrika, 44, 303-313. JSTOR
H. M. Walker (1891-1983), pioneer historian of statistics, produced a centenary piece on a man “to whom no smaller word than titan is appropriate”
Helen M. Walker (1958) The Contributions of Karl Pearson, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 11-22. JSTOR
S. A. Stouffer (1900-1960) pioneer quantitative sociologist studied with Pearson in the 1930s.
Samuel A. Stouffer (1958) Karl Pearson—An Appreciation on the 100th Anniversary of his Birth, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 23-27. JSTOR
2007 was the Karl Pearson sesquicentenary (or sesquicentennial) and this was marked in various ways. There was a Karl Pearson sesquicentenary conference in London in March and a session (“Karl Pearson’s 150th birthday,” IPM78) at the conference of the International Statistical Institute in Lisbon in August; see below.
Pearson’s output was vast: Morant’s bibliography lists 648 publications and some of the projects like the Elasticity and the Galton biography were on the grandest scale.
G. M. Morant (1939) A Bibliography of
the Statistical and other Writings of Karl Pearson,
For the statistical papers—at least—Morant provides abstracts and cross-references. Most of the abstracts were written by B. L. Welch.
Most of Pearson’s articles are now accessible through JSTOR. However many of his contributions to Biometrika were unsigned editorials and material from lectures and the only infallible method for finding them on JSTOR is to go through volume by volume. Alternatively use the Morant bibliography.
The Pearson Papers at University College London has more than 16,000 letters, family papers and scientific manuscripts, including students’ notes on Pearson’s lectures and the records of the Men and Women’s Club. A catalogue is available:
A list of the papers and correspondence of Karl Pearson (1857-1936) held in the Manuscripts Room, University College London Library compiled by M Merrington, B Blundell, S Burrough, J Golden, J Hogarth (University College London, 1983).
The AIM25 listing contains a basic description of the collection.
(2004) has a long list of archives, the ones he used in writing his
book. There is also material at King’s College,
books listed show Pearson’s range of interests: applied mathematics, philosophy
of science, biometrics, eugenics, statistics, literature, linguistics and
society. His novel and play are included for their biographical interest, not
for their influence for they sank without trace; there are copies in the
British Library but not, it seems, in the main
This selection omits several volumes of tables, tracts for computers and monographs on physical anthropology.
Loki (1880) The New Werther.
Through letters to his renounced beloved, Arthur describes the disappointments of philosophy, science, art and love until, like Goethe’s Werther, he commits suicide. For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 3) and E. S. Pearson (1936, pp. 200-1)
[Anonymous] (1882) The Trinity. A
Nineteenth Century Passion-Play, The Son; or, Victory of Love.
In the foreword to this retelling of the Christ story Pearson wrote “Modern science and modern culture are freeing us from the old theological shackles; let them take heed that in destroying a human divinity they do not forget a divine humanity.” For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 4) and E. S. Pearson (1936, pp. 201ff)
The Exact Sciences are mathematics, pure and applied. The book was re-issued in 1946 with a laudatory preface by Bertrand Russell who had read it when he was fifteen.
Karl Pearson (ed.)
(1886/93) A History of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Strength of
Materials from Galilei to the Present Time by I. Todhunter, Vols I &
II (II in two parts).
Pearson wrote more than half of this enormous work. He kept to Todhunter’s plan of summarising each contribution and the result is an encyclopedic treatise on the literature of elasticity organised chronologically rather than a history of science work of the modern kind. For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 3) and E. S. Pearson (1936, p. 209 )
The first papers “endeavour to formulate the opinions which a rational being of to-day may hold with regard to the physical and intellectual worlds.” A second group “regards one or two phases of past thought and life from the Freethinker’s standpoint.” The final group “deals with great race problems”—socialism and the woman’s question. For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 3) and E. S. Pearson (1936, pp. 198-206)
This positivist account of science was widely read in English and in translations. The second edition was enlarged to take account of Pearson’s mathematical studies in evolution. The third edition was conceived on an even larger scale but only the first (Physical) volume appeared. For the 1937 reissue in the Everyman series E. S. Pearson returned to the chapter plan of 1892 but kept the wording of 1900; he also wrote an introduction. In 1991 Thoemmes published a reprint of the first edition with an introduction by Andrew Pyle. For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 3) and E. S. Pearson (1936, pp. 214-7) and (1938, pp. 185-6).
This contains both statistical and historical studies of evolution. The latter include reconstructions of prehistoric society based on the “fossils” of language and customs. Behind the long study of the “German Passion-Play” is the thought that the mediæval philosophy of life contained “social, economic, and æsthetic elements wanting in the civilisation of today.” For discussion see Porter (2004, ch. 3) and E. S. Pearson (1936, p. 225)
Karl Pearson (1901) National Life from
the Standpoint of Science, with a second edition in 1905.
This gives Pearson’s views on nations, socialism and eugenics: “We find that the law of survival of the fitter is true of mankind, but that the struggle is that of the gregarious animal. A community not knit together by strong social instincts by sympathy between man and man, and class and class cannot face the external contest…” In the second edition the original lecture was supplemented by data appendices
Karl Pearson (1914) Tables for
Statisticians and Biometricians,
The main purpose of these first tables was to assist in the fitting of the Pearson curves. More specialised volumes came later as well as a Part II in 1931. Much effort went into table-making and it was an activity Pearson rated highly: “What the true statistician, the true physicist demands” is “the conversion of algebraical results into tables;” an "all-round mathematician" needs to be a “computer.” (Lectures on the History of Statistics, p. 245.) See E. S. Pearson (1938, p. 195)
(1914/24/30) The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, Vols.
I, II, IIIA & IIIB,
This huge work is one of the most ambitious biographies of a scientist ever written. Available online at Gavan Tredoux’s Galton website.
For discussion see E. S. Pearson (1938, pp. 193-195)
S. Pearson (ed) (1978) The History of Statistics in the 17th and 18th
Centuries against the Changing Background of Intellectual, Scientific and
Religious Thought: Lectures by Karl Pearson given at University College,
Here, unlike in the Todhunter Elasticity volumes, the “changing background” is essential to the picture. There is a useful review: I. Hacking (1981) Karl Pearson’s History of Statistics, British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 32, 177-183.
The articles listed here contain the core of Pearson’s contribution to statistics. Stigler (1986) and Hald are good general guides but additional references are noted after each article. Links are given to the Bibliothèque Nationale for the Phil. Trans. papers.
Karl Pearson (1894) Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Evolution, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 185, 71-110. JSTOR
(Introduces the method of moments and applies it to estimating a mixture of normal distributions: Magnello (1996))
Karl Pearson (1895) Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Evolution., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 186, 343-414. JSTOR
(Introduces the Pearson system of curves: Magnello (1996))
Karl Pearson (1896) Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 187, 253-318. JSTOR
Karl Pearson & L. N. G. Filon (1898) Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution IV., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 191, 229-311. JSTOR
Karl Pearson (1900) On the Criterion that a Given System of Deviations from the Probable in the Case of Correlated System of Variables is such that it can be Reasonably Supposed to have Arisen from Random Sampling, Philosophical Magazine, 50, 157-175. here
These articles were all written before Biometrika was founded. With some other non- Biometrika pieces they were reprinted (without editorial additions) in
E. S. Pearson (editor) (1948) Karl Pearson’s
Early Statistical Papers,
Pearson’s technical publications usually involve unfamiliar mathematics and unfamiliar science and, while his volumes of essays were addressed to the educated reader, both the issues and the way they are treated are now remote.
did not make a book out of his
The Laws of Chance, in Relation to Thought and Conduct: Introductory, Definitions and Fundamental Conceptions Being: the First of a Series of Lectures Delivered by Karl Pearson at Gresham College in 1892, Biometrika, 32, (1941), 89-100. JSTOR
Two papers of considerable autobiographical interest should be mentioned. The memoir Pearson wrote on the death of Weldon, his friend and most important colleague, recalls the beginnings of biometry
Karl Pearson (1906) Walter Frank Raphael Weldon.1860-1906, Biometrika, 5,1-52. JSTOR
In old age Pearson wrote affectionately of his student days in the 1870s
Karl Pearson (1936) Old Tripos Days at
In fact, his experience at the time, as described in Andrew Warwick’s Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics, Chicago UP (2003) and based on letters to his family, seems to have been rather unhappy.
Two anthologies of “fin de siècle” writing have snippets of Pearson: Ledger & Luckhurst have extracts from National Life and the Grammar of Science, Jay & Neve have extracts from National Life and the Scope and The Importance to the State of the Science of National Eugenics (1907).
Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst (editors)
(2000) Fin de Siècle A Reader in Cultural History, C. 1880-1900,
Mike Jay and Michael Neve (editors) (2000) 1900: A Fin-De-Siècle Reader, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Much of Pearson’s most important statistical work appeared in conjunction with biological ideas which are now obsolete—e.g. his fundamental work on correlation is in the 1896 paper on “Regression, Heredity and Panmixia”. However his first chi-squared paper, Pearson (1900), does not contain difficult biological matter. It appears with notes by G. A. Barnard in
S. Kotz & N. L. Johnson (ed.) (1992) Breakthroughs
in Statistics Volume 1,
Pearson wrote no textbook but the chapters on evolution in the 2nd edition (1900) of the Grammar of Science make a good introduction to his way of doing statistics. A “statistical methods for research workers” could be compiled from the introductions he wrote for his books of tables. Elderton’s Pearsonian textbook covers fitting the Pearson curves and correlation:
The following selection from the secondary literature is organised under four headings: philosophy, statistics, biology and society. Pearson’s work does not divide so neatly and several items could as well appear elsewhere; this polyvalence is probably one of the appeals of Pearson research. Here I mention some works spanning the categories.
The new biography by Porter has a different emphasis from most of the literature on Pearson for it focuses on the formation of the statistician
T. M. Porter (2004) Karl
Pearson: the Scientific Life in a Statistical Age.
The book makes impressive use of the abundant archival material to give a very full account of Pearson’s life and thoughts in the period before 1900, treating his later career in more cursory fashion. The treatment of Pearson’s work in literature, history and physics and his first efforts in statistics is much fuller than that available elsewhere. The first part of E. S. Pearson’s biography had covered similar territory but in much less detail and with less discussion of the subject’s motivation. Porter’s book has been widely and favourably reviewed. See here for a list of the reviews. Two are available on-line: Lee in Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 59, (2005) and Aldrich in American Scientist.
The inter-connectedness of Pearson’s work was taken for granted by his contemporaries. More recently it has been emphasised by the sociologist MacKenzie and historian Magnello.
MacKenzie’s sociology of scientific knowledge approach has been criticised by Sullivan (see also Olby)
P. Sullivan (1998) An Engineer Dissects
Two Case Studies: Hayes on Fluid Mechanics and MacKenzie on Statistics in N.
Koertge (ed.) A Home Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths about
D. A. MacKenzie (1999) The Science Wars and the Past’s Quiet Voices, (with response by P. Sullivan and reply by Mackenzie), Social Studies of Science, 29, 199-234.
The danger of over-simplifying Pearson’s activities is emphasised by
M. E. Magnello (1999) The Non-correlation of Biometrics and Eugenics: Rival Forms of Laboratory Work in Karl Pearson’s Career at University College London, (In two Parts), History of Science, 37, 79-106, 123-150.
Galton had an important influence on both Pearson’s statistical work and his genetical work. Two new biographies discuss Pearson and his relationship with Galton
N. W. Gillham (2001) A Life of Sir Francis
Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics,
M. Bulmer (2003) Francis
Galton: Pioneer of Heredity and Biometry,
Pearson’s quarrel with R. A. Fisher encompassed both statistics and genetics. Fisher’s side is described by
The relationship between Pearson’s philosophy of science and his genetics is discussed by
B. Norton (1975) Metaphysics and Population Genetics: Karl Pearson and the Background to Fisher’s Multi-factorial Theory of Inheritance, Annals of Science, 32, 537-553.
P. R. Sloan (2000) Mach's Phenomenalism and the British Reception of Mendelism, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Series III Sciences de la Vie, 323, no. 12, pp. 1069-1079(11).
J. Gayon (2007) Karl Pearson: les enjeux du phénoménalisme dans les
sciences biologiques, pp. 305–324 of J. Gayon and R. Burian (eds.)Conceptions de la science, hier,
The relationship between his philosophy of science and his thinking about correlation is discussed by Hilts and by
Pearson’s position on spurious correlation is treated in the earliest known uses entries on “spurious correlation” and “Simpson’s paradox”.
The most thorough account of Pearson’s work in physics and the philosophy of science is in chapter 3 of Porter (2004). Modern textbooks seldom mention Pearson’s contributions to applied mathematics/physics, though the Pearson-Todhunter History is still referred to. Nor is there much historical literature; there are a few remarks in
M. Jammer (1961) Concepts
of Mass in Classical and Modern Physics,
L. A. Godoy (2006) Historical Sense in the Historians of the Theory of Elasticity, Meccanica, 41, Number 5, October, 2006.
Pearson’s philosophy of science has received more attention. Passmore and Porter discuss it in relation to the ideas of other late 19th century physicists
J. Passmore (1968) A Hundred Years of Philosophy, 2nd edition, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
T. M. Porter (1994) The Death of the
Object: Fin-de-Siècle Philosophy of Physics, in D. M. Ross (ed.) Modernist
Impulses in the Human Sciences,
Thiele has reproduced the correspondence between Mach and Pearson
Thiele (1969) Karl Pearson, Ernst Mach,
John B. Stallo: Briefe aus den Jahren 1897 bis 1904,
Porter draws on Pearson’s novel and passion play to discuss his philosophy taken more broadly—including his attitudes to religion and socialism—in
T. M. Porter (1999) Reason, Faith, and
Alienation in the Victorian Fin-de-Siècle in H. E. Bodecker (ed.) Wissenschaft
als Kulturelle Praxis.
In this essay Porter compares Pearson with John Henry Newman. Levine compares him with Walter Pater:
Herbert detects Feuerbach’s influence in the Grammar of Science
Christopher Herbert (1996) Science and Narcissism, Modernism/Modernity, 3, 129-135. Available online to subscribing institutions at
The Grammar made little impression on professional philosophers but it was inspiring to a number of scientifically-minded youngsters including Harold Jeffreys and Jerzy Neyman. Raymond Pearl testified to this influence on his generation.
Pearson’s name appears in statistics textbooks in connection with chi-squared, correlation, goodness of fit, method of moments and the Pearson system of curves. However these books rarely contain much information about the man or about the context of his work.
There is a good account of Pearson’s earliest statistical work in chapters 8 and 9 of Porter (2004). Another useful account containing much biographical information is
M. Eileen Magnello (2005) Karl Pearson and the Origins of Modern Statistics: An Elastician becomes a Statistician, Rutherford Journal, 1 (1) here
For accounts on Pearson’s place in the history of statistics see (besides MacKenzie (1981))
H. M. Walker (1929) Studies in the History of Statistical Method, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
L. Hilts (1967) Statist and Statistician: Three Studies in the History of
Nineteenth Century English Statistical Thought. Thesis,
J. W. Tankard (1984) The
The International Statistical Review has marked the Pearson sesquicentenary with a special issue. Appropriately enough, the articles emphasise Pearson’s international influence.
M. E. Magnello Karl Pearson and the Establishment of Mathematical Statistics, International Statistical Review, 77, 3-29.
H. A. David (2009) Karl Pearson—The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age by Theodore M. Porter: A Review, International Statistical Review, 77, 30-39.
A. M. Fiori andM. Zenga (2009) Karl Pearson and the Origin of Kurtosis, International Statistical Review, 77, 40-50.
D R. Bellhouse (2009) Karl Pearson's Influence in the United States, International Statistical Review, 77, 51-63.
P Guttorp and G. Lindgren (2009) Karl Pearson and the Scandinavian School of Statistics, International Statistical Review, 77, 64-71.
T. K. Nayak (2009) Impact of Karl
Pearson's Work on Statistical Developments in
C. G. Borroni (2009) Understanding Karl Pearson's Influence on Italian Statistics in the Early 20th Century International Statistical Review, 77, 81-95.
I. H. Stamhuis and E. Seneta
(2009) Pearson's Statistics in the
The issue has no paper on Pearson’s influence in
M. Armatte (2005) Lucien March (1859-1933): Une statistique mathématique sans probabilité? Journal Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique, 1, (1), pp. 19.
Hald’s book has a comprehensive bibliography. A few items from it are worth highlighting: E. S. Pearson on the interaction of Pearson, Galton, Weldon, Edgeworth, ‘Student’ and Fisher and Plackett on Pearson (1900)
E. S. Pearson (1965) Some Incidents in the Early History of Biometry and Statistics 1890-94, Biometrika, 52, 3-18. JSTOR
E. S. Pearson (1967) Some Reflections on Continuity in the Development of Mathematical Statistics 1885-1920, Biometrika, 54, 341-355. JSTOR
E. S. Pearson (1968) Some Early Correspondence Between W. S. Gosset,
More recent papers include
S. M. Stigler (1999) Karl Pearson and
Degrees of Freedom. In the collection of essays, S. M. Stigler, Statistics
on the Table,
Eileen Magnello, Karl
Pearson, Paper on the Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit Test. In Ivor
Grattan-Guinness (ed.) Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics: Case
Studies, 1640-1940, pp. 724-731,
S. M. Stigler (2008) Karl Pearson's Theoretical Errors and the Advances They Inspired, Statistical Science, 23 (2), 261-271. Euclid.
Lancaster and Dale treat more specialised theoretical topics
H. O. Lancaster (1969) The Chi-squared Distribution,
There is a volume marking the centenary of Pearson’s chi-squared paper
C. Huber-Caro, N. Balakrishnan,
M. Nikulin, M. Mesbah (Eds.) (2002) Goodness-of-Fit
Tests and Model Validity,
Pearson’s time series analysis as well as other aspects of his work are discussed by
J. L. Klein (1997) Statistical Visions
in Time: A History of Time Series Analysis, 1662-1938,
Among the other distinguished statisticians who worked for KP were F. N. David, J. O. Irwin, H. E. Soper (see M. Greenwood, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 94, (1931), 135-141 JSTOR) and J. Wishart.
Pearson’s relations with Gosset (‘Student’) are covered by
E. S. Pearson (1990) ‘Student’, A Statistical Biography of William Sealy Gosset, Edited and Augmented by R. L. Plackett with the Assistance of G. A. Barnard, Oxford: University Press.
The origins of Fisher’s quarrel with Pearson (see above) are described in
E. S. Pearson (1968) Some Early
Correspondence between W. S. Gosset,
S. E. Fienberg (1980) Fisher’s Contribution to Categorical Data, pp. 75-84 of Fienberg, S. E. & D. V. Hinkley (1980) (eds.) R. A. Fisher: An Appreciation, New York, Springer.
R. Mensch (1980) Fisher and the Method of Moments, pp. 67-74, of Fienberg & Hinkley.
D. Baird (1983) The Fisher/Pearson Chi-Squared Controversy: A Turning Point for Inductive Inference, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 34, 105-118. JSTOR
H. F. Inman (1994) Karl Pearson and
J. Aldrich (1997)
S. M. Stigler (2005) Fisher in 1921, Statistical Science, 20, 32-49. Project Euclid.
J. Aldrich (2005) Fisher and Regression, Statistical Science, 20, 401-417. pdf.
The relevant papers by Fisher are available from the University of Adelaide as is the useful biography
Yates, F. & K. Mather (1963) Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 9, 91-120.
For more on Fisher see A Guide to R. A. Fisher.
Pearson did not only apply statistics to biometrics; for his work in medical statistics see
M. E. Magnello (2002) The Introduction of Mathematical Statistics into Medical Research: The Roles of Karl Pearson, Major Greenwood and Austin Bradford Hill, in Eileen Magnello and Anne Hardy (ed.) The Road to Medical Statistics, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
A. Hardy and M. E. Magnello (2002) Statistical methods in Epidemiology: Karl Pearson, Ronald Ross, Major Greenwood and Austin Bradford Hill, 1900-1945, Soz.- Präventivmed. 47, 80–89. here
K. O'Rourke (2006). Reducing the Play of Chance using Meta-analysis. James Lind Library. This refers to the following
K. Pearson (1904) Report on Certain Enteric Fever Inoculation Statistics. British Medical Journal, 3, 1243-1246. here
Pearson’s research into the effects of parental alcoholism was criticised by doctors and by the economists J. M. Keynes, Alfred Marshall and A. C. Pigou. The controversy is discussed in the standard biographies of Keynes (by Harrod, Skidelsky and Moggridge) and in accounts of Keynes’s attitude towards statistics: see e.g.
R. M. O’Donnell (1989) Keynes:
Philosophy, Economics and Politics,
B. W. Bateman (1990) Keynes, Induction and Econometrics, History of Political Economy, 22, 359-379.
The most thorough treatment of the statistical issues involved is
S. M. Stigler (1999) Karl Pearson and the
Pearson’s more positive relationships with the American statistical economists H. L. Moore and Irving Fisher are discussed in
J. Aldrich (2010) The Econometricians’ Statisticians 1895-1945, History of Political Economy, 42, 111-154.
Biometrika celebrated its centenary in 2001 and several of the articles in the commemorative issue (February 2001) discuss Pearson’s contributions to the journal. The material is available in book form as Biometrika: One Hundred Years edited by
D. M. Titterington & D.
J. Aldrich (2003) The Language of the English Biometric School, International Statistical Review, 71, 109-131. pdf
A. David, First (?) Occurrence of Common Terms in Statistics and Probability,
Appendix B and pp. 219-228 of H. A. David & A. W. F. Edwards (ed.) (2001) Annotated
or by searching for Pearson in Jeff Miller’s Earliest known uses of some of the words of mathematics.
There is a large literature touching on Pearson in this area—and the following is only a selection. Pearson’s work has not only attracted attention from regular historians of science but from students of the sociology of scientific knowledge (see above) and the philosophy of science.
Pearson’s biology is put in various historical contexts by
J. Bowler (1989) The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian
Concepts in Modern Science and Society,
W. B. Provine (1971) The Origins of
Theoretical Population Genetics,
K.-M. Kim (1994) Explaining Scientific Consensus: the Case of Mendelian Genetics,
J. Gayon (1998) Darwinism’s Struggle
for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection,
Bowler is very brief. The other works have much more to say.
For a recent detailed account of Pearson’s efforts see
The controversy with the Mendelian, William Bateson, is examined more specifically in
P. Froggatt & N. C. Nevin (1971) The
“Law of Ancestral Heredity” and the Mendelian-Ancestrian Controversy in
D. A. MacKenzie & B. Barnes (1979) Scientific Judgement: the Biometry-Mendelism Controversy, pp. 191-210 of Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture, edited by B. Barnes and S. Shapin, Beverly-Hills: Sage.
N. Roll-Hansen (1983): The Death of Spontaneous Generation and the Birth of the Gene: Two Case Studies of Relativism. Social Studies of Science, 13, 481-519.
A. Nordmann (1992) Darwinians at War: Bateson's Place in Histories of Darwinism, Synthese, 91, 53-72.
A. R. Rushton (2000) Nettleship, Pearson and Bateson: The Biometric-Mendelian Debate in a Medical Context, Journal of the History of Medicine, 55, 134-157.
M. E. Magnello (2004) “The Reception of
Mendelism by the Biometricians and the Early Mendelians (1899-1909, in M. Keynes, A. W. F. Edwards,
R. Peel (eds.) (2004) A Century of
Mendelism in Human Genetics,
Olby also reviews the secondary literature. For Bateson see Donald Forsdyke’s website. A major biography of Bateson has recently appeared
Alan G. Cock & Donald
An important point of contention between Pearson and Fisher (see also the references under Statistics above) is treated by
B. Norton and E. S. Pearson
(1976) A Note on the Background to and Refereeing of
Fisher 1918 reconciled Mendelism and Biometry. Morrison tries to identify the assumptions behind Fisher’s reconciliation and Pearson’s rejection of reconciliation.
M. Morrison (2002) Modelling Populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and Biometry, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53, 39-698.
Pearson’s criticism of some Mendelian work on the inheritance of mental defect is treated by
H. G. Spencer and D. B. Paul (1998) The Failure of a Scientific Critic: David Heron, Karl Pearson and Mendelian Eugenics, British Journal of the History of Science, 31, 441-452.
Pearson is perhaps most familiar to the general reader as an advocate of eugenics. For an introduction and guide to this literature see MacKenzie and
G. R. Searle (1976)
Eugenics and Politics in
D. J. Kevles (1985) In the Name of
Eugenics: Genetics and the Use of Human Heredity,
P. M. H.
Mazumdar (1992) Eugenics, Human Genetics and Human Failings.
Kevles has a valuable bibliographical essay.
There are 2 short extracts from Pearson’s writings on eugenics in
Lucy Bland & Laura Doan (eds) (1998) Sexology Uncensored: The Documents of Sexual Science, Chicago: Chicago University Press. (Table of contents)
Carolyn Burdett “From the New Werther to
Numbers and Arguments: Karl Pearson’s Eugenics” in Roger
Luckhurst & Josephine McDonagh (eds) (2002) Transactions and Encounters: Science and Culture in
the Nineteenth Century,
L. Bland (1995) Banishing the Beast:
English Feminism and Sexual Morality 1885-1914,
The Club is also discussed in
Elaine Showalter (1990) Sexual
Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin-de-Siecle,
Ruth First & Ann Scott (1980)
Carolyn Burdett (2001) Olive
Schreiner and the Progress of Feminism: Evolution, Gender, Empire,
The careers of two of KP’s female colleagues are described by
R. Love (1979)
Semmel pioneered the study of Pearson’s social ideology in its historical context
B. Semmel (1960) Imperialism and
Social Reform: English Social-Imperial Thought 1895-1914,
Pearson also appears in Jones’s more sociologically oriented study
Greta Jones (1980) Social Darwinism
and English Thought: the Interaction between Biological and Social Theory,
In statistics and biology there has long been a sense that Pearson’s work had been absorbed and that nothing new can be learnt from it. Yet occasionally one of his ideas is picked up and developed as e.g. the correlation curve
but more often they are re-invigorated without reference to the original as in
L. P. Hansen (1982) Large Sample Properties of Generalized Methods of Moments Estimators, Econometrica, 50, 1029-1054. JSTOR
The secondary works listed above have further references and the Science, Social Science and Art & Humanities citation indexes will generate more. The Current Index to Statistics, Isis and Historia Mathematica index papers in statistics, history of science and the history of mathematics.
For Francis Galton see the website created by Gavan Tredoux
For a sketch of the history of probability and statistics and notes on some of the key people see my
For the history of statistics see Peter Lee’s
For the history of mathematics see David Wilkins’s
MedHist the Wellcome Library’s gateway to internet resources for the history of medicine has sections on genetics and eugenics.